UPSC EPFO,CDS,CMS,Civil Services AO/EO,CAPF, Geo-Scientist,IES/ ISS,IFS,NDA & NA Syllabus

EPFO UPSC Syllabus
CDS Exam UPSC Syllabus
CMS Exam UPSC Syllabus
Civil Services UPSC Syllabus
Accounts/ Enforcement Officer Exam UPSC Syllabus
Engineering Services Exam UPSC Syllabus
CAPF UPSC Syllabus
Combined Geo-Scientist Examination, 2022 UPSC Syllabus
IES/ ISS UPSC Syllabus
IFS UPSC Syllabus
NDA & NA UPSC Syllabus

Download UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 pdf

Union Public Service Commission has published syllabus for the post of EPFO .

UPSC EPFO Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union Public Service Commission
Post Name Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation

Union Public Service Commission EPFO Selection Procedure 2022

  • Recruitment Test (RT)
  • Interview

UPSC Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation Exam Pattern 2022

UPSC EPFO Written Examination Pattern
Exam Medium Marks Weightage
Recruitment Test (RT) Hindi and English 100 75%
Interview 100 25%
  • (i) The test will be of two hours duration
  • (ii) All questions will carry equal marks.
  • (iii) The test will be objective type questions with multiple choices of answer.
  • (iv) The medium of the test will be both Hindi and English.
  • (v) There will be penalty for wrong answers. Every wrong answer will carry a
    deduction of one-third of the marks assigned to that question. If no answer is
    marked for a question, there will be no penalty for that question.

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022

The syllabus of the Test broadly comprises the following topics :-

  • i) General English- To evaluate candidate’s understanding of English language & workman – like use of words.
  • ii) Indian Freedom Struggle.
  • iii) Current Events and Developmental Issues.
  • iv) Indian Polity & Economy.
  • v) General Accounting Principles.
  • vi) Industrial Relations & Labour Laws.
  • vii) General Science & knowledge of Computer applications.
  • viii) General Mental Ability & Quantitative Aptitude.
  • ix) Social Security in India.

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 for General English:

  • Verb.
  • Tenses.
  • Adverb.
  • Word Formation.
  • Articles.
  • Grammar.
  • Synonyms & Antonyms.
  • Conclusion.
  • Comprehension.
  • Fill in the Blanks.
  • Subject-Verb Agreement.
  • Sentence Completion.
  • Theme detection.
  • Error Correction.
  • Unseen Passages.
  • Idioms & Phrases.
  • Passage Completion.
  • Vocabulary.
  • Sentence Rearrangement.

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 for Indian Freedom Struggle:

UPSC EPFO Syllabus British extension:

  • The Carnatic Wars
  • invasion of Bengal
  • Mysore and its confrontation with British expansion: The three Anglo-Maratha Wars.
  • Regulating and Pitt’s India Acts
  • Early composition of the British raj.

UPSC EPFO Syllabus Confrontation to British rule:

  • Early uprisings, The 1857 Revolt-reasons, character, course and result
  • Indian Freedom struggle the first stage: Growth of national consciousness;
  • creation of Associations;
  • Establishment of the Indian National Congress and its Moderate stage;
  • Swadeshi Movement;
  • Economic Nationalism;
  • The development of Extremism and the split in Congress;
  • The policy of Divide and Rule;
  • Congress-League Pact of 1916.

UPSC EPFO Syllabus Gandhian thoughts and techniques of mass mobilization:

  • Civil Disobedience, the Khilafat movement, Non-Cooperation Movement, and Quit India Movement
  • Another strand in the National Movement-Revolutionaries, Subhash Chandra Bose, and the Indian National Army.

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 for Current Events & Developmental Issues:

  • Current Affairs (National & International)
  • Sports
  • Awards and their importance
  • Politics
  • Finance and Banking sector
  • Population Census
  • Important Books and their writers
  • State Animals and Symbols
  • Name of the Scientist who got Noble prize for important discoveries
  • Important Days
  • Important Inventions and their inventor

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 for Indian Polity & Economy:

UPSC EPFO Syllabus Indian Polity

  • Indian Constitution, historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States
  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures
  • Public Policy, Rights Issues

UPSC EPFO Syllabus Indian Economy

  • Economic growth and development – basic concept and definition of economy and economics
  • Use and transfer of resources, distributive effects
  • Macro and microeconomic policy
  • micro-macro balance
  • Distributive impact of economic policies
  • Inclusion – definition, relevance, types, financial inclusion, recent initiatives.
  • Fiscal policy – definition, component, receipts, revenue and capital account, tax revenue, expenditure, budget.

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 for General Accounting principles:

UPSC EPFO Syllabus Accounting Concepts 

  • Separate Entity Concept
  • Money Measurement Concept
  • Going Concern Concept
  • Dual Aspect Concern
  • Realisation Concept
  • Cost Concept
  • Accounting Period Concept
  • Matching Concept

UPSC EPFO Syllabus Accounting Conventions

  • Conservatism
  • Consistency
  • Full Disclosure
  • Materiality

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 for Industrial Relations & Labour Laws:

  • Industrial relations code (IRC) Bill
  • Model of labour reforms.
  • Trade Union Act, Minimum Wages Act
  • Strikes and lockouts
  • Industrial Disputes Act (IDA)
  • Labour Courts
  • Industrial Tribunals
  • Workman’s Compensation Act
  • Employees State Insurance Act
  • Retirement Benefits, Emigration Act
  • International Labour Organisation (ILO)

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 for General Science & Knowledge of Computer Applications:

UPSC EPFO Syllabus General Science

  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Life Science

UPSC EPFO Syllabus Computer Applications

  • Computer organisations
  • Operating Systems
  • Database management
  • Data structures
  • Data communications
  • Computer networks
  • Input and Output Devices
  • Memory
  • MS Office
  • Internet

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 for General Mental Ability & Quantitative Aptitude:

UPSC EPFO Syllabus General Mental Ability

  • Sequence of figures
  • Series
  • Blood Relations
  • Directions
  • Syllogism
  • Seating Arrangement
  • Puzzle Test
  • Statement and Conclusion
  • Statement and Inferences
  • Data sufficiency

UPSC EPFO Syllabus Quantitative Aptitude

  • Algebra
  • Average
  • Mixtures and Alligation
  • Ratio and Proportion
  • Partnership
  • Percentage and its application
  • Profit and Loss
  • Time and Work
  • Time, Speed and Distance
  • Problems Based on Ages
  • Calendar and Clock
  • Probability
  • Permutations and Combinationsh:

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 for Social Security In India:

  • What is Social Security?
  • History of Social security
  • Social Security in India
  • Constitutional Provisions Concurrent List
  • Part IV Directive Principles of State Policy
  • Difference between Organized and Unorganized Sectors SOCIAL SECURITY LAWS in India
  • Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948 (ESI Act)
  • Employees’ Provident Funds Act, 1952
  • Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923 (WC Act)
  • Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 (M.B. Act)
  • Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 (P.G. Act)
  • Social Security In India: Different From Developed Nations
  • Provident Fund.

UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022 Marks Weightage:

Recruitment Test (RT) and Interview carry weightage in the ratio of 75:25 for the
candidates shortlisted based on Recruitment Test (RT) and qualify in the interview.

UPSC EPFO Syllabus The Recruitment Test (RT) will be conducted across the following centers:

  • Ahmedabad
  • Shillong
  • Imphal
  • Prayagraj(Allahabad)
  • Shimla
  • Agartala
  • Bengaluru
  • Srinagar
  • Jorhat
  • Bhopal
  • Thiruvananthapuram
  • Aizawl
  • Mumbai
  • Kochi
  • Itanagar
  • Kolkata
  • Lucknow
  • Raipur
  • Cuttack
  • Jammu
  • Vishakhapatnam
  • Delhi
  • Chandigarh
  • Tirupati
  • Dispur
  • Panaji(Goa)
  • Udaipur
  • Hyderabad
  • Port Blair
  • Sambalpur
  • Jaipur
  • Dharwad
  • Bareilly
  • Chennai
  • Madurai
  • Gautam Budh Nagar
  • Nagpur
  • Ranchi
  • Ghaziabad
  • Dehradun
  • Gangtok
  • Gurugram
  • Patna
  • Kohima
  • Faridabad

Download UPSC EPFO Syllabus 2022

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Download UPSC CDS Exam Syllabus 2022 pdf

Union Public Service Commission has published syllabus for the post of CDS Exam .

UPSC CDS Exam Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union Public Service Commission
Post Name Combined Defense Service I

UPSC CDS Exam Selection Procedure 2022

  • Interview
  • Group Testing Officer Tasks
  • Psychology Tests
  • Conference

CDS Exam Pattern 2022 for Indian Military, Indian Naval, and Air Force Academies

CDS Exam Pattern 2022 for Indian Military, Indian Naval, and Air Force Academies
Subject Marks Duration
English 100 2 Hours
General Knowlege 100 2 Hours
Elementary Mathematics 100 2 Hours
Total 300 6 Hours

CDS Exam Pattern 2022 for Officer Trainee Academy (OTA)

CDS Exam Pattern 2022 for Officer Trainee Academy (OTA)
Subject Marks Duration
English 100 2 Hours
General Knowlege 100 2 Hours
Total 200 4 Hours
  • The maximum marks allotted to the written examination and to the interviews will be equal for each course i.e. the maximum marks allotted to the written examination and to the interviews will be 300, 300, 300 and 200 each for admission to the Indian Military Academy, Indian Naval Academy, Air Force Academy and Officers’ Training Academy respectively.
  • The papers in all the subjects will consist of objective type questions only. The question papers (Test Booklets) of General Knowledge and Elementary Mathematics will be set bilingually in Hindi as well as English.
  • In the question papers, wherever necessary, questions involving the metric system of Weights and Measures only will be set.
  • Candidates must write the papers in their own hand. In no circumstances will they be allowed the help of a scribe to write answers for them.
  • The Commission have discretion to fix qualifying marks in any or all the subjects of the examination.
  • The candidates are not permitted to use calculator for answering objective type papers (Test Booklets). They should not therefore, bring the same inside the Examination Hall.
  • No Negative Marking.
  • Pen Paper Mode of Examination.
  • The standard of the papers in Elementary Mathematics will be of Matriculation level. The standard of papers in other subjects will approximately be such as may be expected of a graduate of an Indian University.

UPSC CDS Exam Written Examination Syllabus 2022

UPSC Syllabus ENGLISH (Code No. 01)

  • Usage of words.
  • Grammar.
  • Vocabulary.
  • Antonyms & Synonyms.
  • Parts of Speech.
  • Direct & Indirect Speech.
  • Idioms & Phrases.
  • Active & Passive Voice etc.


  • Indian History.
  • Indian Geography.
  • Current Events – National & International.
  • Indian Culture & Heritage.
  • Indian Economy.
  • General Polity.
  • Indian Constitution.
  • Science and Technology etc.



  • Number System
  • Natural numbers
  • Integers
  • Rational and Real numbers
  • Fundamental operations
  • Unitary method
  • time and distance
  • time and work
  • percentages
  • applications to simple and compound interest
  • profit and loss
  • ratio and proportion
  • variation
  • Elementary Number Theory
  • Division algorithm
  • Prime and composite numbers
  • Tests of divisibility
  • Factorization Theorem
  • H.C.F. and L.C.M
  • Euclidean algorithm
  • Logarithms


  • Basic Operations
  • Simple factors
  • Remainder Theorem
  • H.C.F. & L.C.M.
  • Theory of polynomials
  • Solutions of quadratic equations
  • analytical and graphical solutions
  • Simultaneous linear inequations
  • Practical problems – simultaneous
  • linear equations or inequations
  • Rational expressions
  • conditional identities
  • Laws of indices


  • Sine ×, cosine ×, Tangent × when 0° < × < 90° Values of sin ×, cos × and tan ×, for ×
    = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°
  • Simple trigonometric identities
  • Use of trigonometric tables.
  • Simple cases of heights and distances.


  • Lines and angles
  • Plane and plane figures
  • Theorems on (i) Properties of angles at a point
    (ii) Parallel lines
    (iii) Sides and angles of a triangle
    (iv) Congruency of triangles
    (v) Similar triangle
    (vi) The concurrence of medians and altitudes
    (vii)Properties of angles, sides & diagonals of a parallelogram, rectangle, and square.
    (viii) Circles and its properties including tangents and normals, (ix) Loci.


  • Areas of squares, rectangles, parallelograms, triangle, and circle.
  • Areas of figures which can be split up into these figures (Field Book)
  • Surface area and volume of cuboids
  • lateral surface and volume of right circular cones and cylinders
  • surface area and volume of spheres.


  • Collection and tabulation of statistical data
  • Graphical representation frequency polygons, histograms, bar charts, pie charts, etc.
  • Measures of central tendency.


The SSB procedure consists of two stage Selection process – stage I and stage II. Only those candidates who clear the stage I are permitted to appear for stage II.

Stage I

  • Officer Intelligence Rating (OIR) tests are Picture Perception* Description Test (PP&DT).

Stage II

  • Interview
  • Group Testing Officer Tasks
  • Psychology Tests
  • Conference.

UPSC Syllabus Elementary Mathematics

  • Number System
  • Geometry
  • Mensuration
  • Trigonometry

UPSC Syllabus General Knowledge

  • Science
  • Politics
  • History
  • Geography

UPSC Syllabus English

  • Reading Comprehension
  • Sentence Improvement
  • Spot the Error
  • Cloze Test

The personality of a candidate is assessed by three different assessors viz. The Interviewing Officer (IO), Group Testing Officer (GTO) and the Psychologist. There are no separate weightage for each test. The marks are allotted by assessors only after taking into consideration the performance of the candidate holistically in all the test. In addition, marks for Conference are also allotted based on the initial performance of the Candidate in the three techniques and decision of the Board. All these have equal weightage.

The various tests of IO, GTO and Psych are designed to bring out the presence/absence of Officer Like Qualities and their trainability in a candidate. Accordingly candidates are Recommended or Not Recommended at the SSB.

Download UPSC CDS Exam Syllabus 2022

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Download UPSC CMS Exam Syllabus 2022 pdf

Union Public Service Commission has published syllabus for the post of CMS Exam .

UPSC CMS Exam Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union Public Service Commission
Post Name Combined Medical Services

UPSC CMS Exam Selection Procedure 2022

  • Written Test.
  • Interview / Personality Test.

UPSC CMS Exam Exam Pattern 2022

UPSC CMS Exam Written Examination Pattern
Paper Section Question Marks
  Paper-I General Medicine 96  250
Pediatrics 24


Surgery 40  


Gynaecology & Obstetrics 40
Preventive & Social Medicine 40
Total 240 500
  • The Computer based examination in both the papers will be completely of objective (Multiple choice answers) type. The question Papers (Test Booklets) will be set in English only.
  • Candidates must mark the Papers themselves. In no circumstances will they be allowed the help of a scribe to mark answers for them.
  • The Commission have discretion to fix qualifying marks in any or both the papers of the examination.
  • Penalty for wrong answers
    There will be penalty (Negative Marking) for wrong answers marked by a candidate in the objective type question papers.
    (i) There are four alternatives for the answers to every question. For each question for which a wrong answer has been given by the candidate, one third of the marks assigned to that question will be deducted as penalty.
    (ii) If a candidate gives more than one answer, it will be treated as a wrong answer even if one of the given answers happens to be correct and there will be same penalty as above for that question.
    (iii) If a question is left blank i.e. no answer is given by the candidate, there will be no penalty for that question.
  • Candidates are not permitted to use calculators for answering objective type papers. They should, therefore not bring the same inside the Examination Hall.
  • Both the Papers of the CMSE will be of MBBS standard.
  • Each paper will be of 2 Hours Duration.

UPSC CMS Exam Written Examination Syllabus 2022

UPSC Syllabus General Medicine

  • Cardiology
  • Respiratory diseases
  • Gastro-intestinal
  • Genito-Urinary
  • Neurology
  • Hematology
  • Endocrinology
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Infections/Communicable Diseases
    a) Virus
    b) Rickets
    c) Bacterial
    d) Spirochetal
    e) Protozoan
    f) Metazoan
    g) Fungus
  • Nutrition/Growth
  • Diseases of the skin (Dermatology)
  • Musculoskeletal System
  • Psychiatry
  • General
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Common Poisoning
  • Snakebite
  • Tropical Medicine
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Emphasis on medical procedures
  • Patho physiological basis of diseases
  • Vaccines preventable diseases and Non-vaccines preventable diseases
  • Vitamin deficiency diseases
  • In psychiatry include – Depression, psychosis, anxiety, bipolar diseases, and Schizophrenia.

UPSC Syllabus Paediatrics

  • Common childhood emergencies
  • Basic newborn care
  • Normal developmental milestones
  • Accidents and poisonings in children
  • Birth defects and counseling including autism
  • Immunization in children
  • Recognizing children with special needs and management
  • National programs related to child health

UPSC Syllabus Surgery

  • General Surgery
    i) Wounds
    ii) Infections
    iii) Tumours
    iv) Lymphatic
    v) Blood vessels
    vi) Cysts/sinuses
    vii) Head and neck
    viii) Breast
    ix) Alimentary tract
    a) Oesophagus
    b) Stomach
    c) Intestines
    d) Anus
    e) Developmental
    x) Liver, Bile, Pancreas
    xi) Spleen
    xii) Peritoneum
    xiii) Abdominal wall
    xiv) Abdominal injuries
  • Urological Surgery
  • Neuro Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology E.N.T
  • Thoracic surgery
  • Orthopedic surgery
  • Ophthalmology
  • Anesthesiology
  • Traumatology
  • Diagnosis and management of common surgical ailments
  • Pre-operative and post-operative care of surgical patients
  • Medicolegal and ethical issues of surgery
  • Wound healing
  • Fluid and electrolyte management in surgery
  • Shock pathophysiology and management


    i) Ante‐natal conditions
    ii) Intra‐natal conditions
    iii) Post‐natal conditions
    iv) Management of normal labours or complicated labour
    i) Questions on applied anatomy
    ii) Questions on applied physiology of menstruation and fertilization
    iii) Questions on infections in genital tract
    iv) Questions on neoplasma in the genital tract
    v) Questions on displacement of the uterus
    vi) Normal delivery and safe delivery practices
    vii) High risk pregnancy and management
    viii) Abortions
    ix) Intra Uterine growth retardation
    x) Medicolegal examination in obgy and Gynae including Rape
    i) Conventional contraceptives
    ii) U.D. and oral pills
    iii) Operative procedure, sterilization and organization of programmes in the urban and rural surroundings
    iv) Medical Termination of Pregnancy

UPSC Syllabus Preventive Social and Community Medicine

  • Social and Community Medicine
  • The concept of Health, Disease and Preventive Medicine
  • Health Administration and Planning
  • General Epidemiology
  • Demography and Health Statistics
  • Communicable Diseases
  • Environmental Health
  • Nutrition and Health
  • Non-communicable diseases
  • Occupational Health
  • Genetics and Health
  • International Health
  • Medical Sociology and Health Education
  • Maternal and Child Health
  • National Programmes
  • Management of common health problems
  • Ability to monitor national health programs
  • Knowledge of maternal and child wellness
  • Ability to recognize, investigate, report, plan and manage community health problems including malnutrition and emergencies

UPSC Syllabus PERSONALITY TEST(100 marks): Candidates who qualify in the computer based examination will be called for Interview/Personality Test to be conducted by the Union Public Service Commission. The Interview/Personality Test will carry 100 marks. The Interview for Personality Test will be intended to serve as a supplement to the computer based examination for testing the General Knowledge and ability of the candidates in the fields of their academic study and also in the nature of a personality test to assess the candidate’s intellectual curiosity, critical powers
of assimilation, balance of judgement and alertness of mind, ability for social cohesion, integrity of character, initiative and capability for leadership.

Download UPSC CMS Exam Syllabus 2022

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Download UPSC Civil Services Syllabus 2022 pdf

Union Public Service Commission has published syllabus for the post of Civil Services .

UPSC Civil Services Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union Public Service Commission
Post Name Civil Services

UPSC Civil Services Selection Procedure 2022

UPSC Civil Services Services Selection Procedure
Stage Exam Name Exam Type Marks 
Stage I Prelims Examination Objective Type 400
Stage II Mains Examination Descriptive Type 1750
Stage III Interview Test Personality Test 250
  • Prelims Examination: It is mandatory for the candidate to appear in both the Papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination for the purpose of evaluation. Therefore a candidate will be disqualified in case he/she does not appear in both the papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination.
  • Mains Examination:The main Examination is intended to assess the overall intellectual traits and depth of understanding of candidates rather than merely the range of their information and memory.
  • Interview Test:The candidate will be interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of his career.He will be asked questions on matters of general interest. The object of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in public service by a Board of competent and unbiased observers. The test is intended to judge the mental caliber of a candidate. In broad terms this is really an assessment of not only his intellectual qualities but also social traits and his interest in current affairs. Some of the qualities to be judged are mental alertness, critical powers of assimilation, clear and logical exposition, balance of judgement, variety and depth of interest,ability for social cohesion and leadership, intellectual and moral integrity.

UPSC Civil Services Exam Pattern 2022

UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper-I General Ability Test (GAT) 200 02 Hours
Paper-II Civil Service Aptitude Test (CSAT) 200 02 Hours
  • Note 1:The question papers will be set both in Hindi and English.
  • Note 2:Paper-II of the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination will be a qualifying paper with
    minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.
  • Note 3:The questions will be of multiple choice, objective type
  • Note 4: There will be negative marking for incorrect answers as detailed below:
    (i) There are four alternatives for the answers to every question. For each question for which
    a wrong answer has been given by the candidate, one-third (0.33) of the marks assigned to that question will be deducted as penalty.
    (ii) If a candidate gives more than one answer, it will be treated as a wrong answer even if one of the given answers happen to be correct and there will be same penalty as above for that question.
    (iii) If a question is left blank i.e. no answer is given by the candidate, there will be no penalty
    for that question
UPSC Civil Services Prelims Exam Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper A Any Indian language 300 3 Hours
Paper B English Paper 300 3 Hours
Paper I Essay 250 3 Hours
Paper II General Studies I 250 3 Hours
Paper III General Studies II 250 3 Hours
Paper IV General Studies III 250 3 Hours
Paper V General Studies IV 250 3 Hours
Paper VI Optional Subject Paper I 250 3 Hours
Paper VII Optional Subject Paper II 250 3 Hours
  • Note 1:The papers on Indian languages and English (Paper A and paper B) will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature. The marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking
  • Note 2:Evaluation of the papers, namely, ‘Essay’, ‘General Studies’ and Optional Subject of all the candidates would be done simultaneously along with evaluation of their qualifying papers on ‘Indian Languages’ and ‘English’ but the papers on Essay, General Studies and Optional Subject of only such candidates will be taken cognizance who attain 25% marks in ‘Indian Language’ and 25% in English as minimum qualifying standards in these qualifying papers.
  • Note 3:Marks obtained by the candidates for the Paper I-VII only will be counted for merit ranking.However, the Commission will have the discretion to fix qualifying marks in any or all of these papers.
  • Note 4: There will be negative marking for incorrect answers as detailed below:

UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Examination Syllabus 2022

UPSC Syllabus Paper I

  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
    Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy,
    Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion,
    Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not
    require subject specialization.
  • General Science.

UPSC Syllabus Paper II

  • Comprehension;
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability;
  • Decision making and problem solving;
  • General mental ability;
  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data
    interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. — Class X level);

UPSC Civil Services Indian language & English Syllabus 2022

The aim of the paper is to test the candidates’ ability to read and understand serious
discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in English and Indian language
The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows :

  • (i) Comprehension of given passages.
  • (ii) Précis Writing.
  • (iii) Usage and Vocabulary.
  • (iv) Short Essays.
  • (v) Translation from English to the Indian Language and vice-versa.
  • Note 1:The papers on Indian Languages and English will be of Matriculation or equivalent
    standard and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in these papers will not be
    counted for ranking.
  • Note 2:The candidates will have to answer the English and Indian Languages papers in English and the respective Indian language (except where translation is involved).

UPSC Syllabus PAPER-I Essay:

  • Candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

UPSC Syllabus PAPER-II General Studies-I :
Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from
    ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the presentsignificant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from
    different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and
    developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society.
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector
    industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone
    etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

UPSC Syllabus PAPER-III General Studies- II:
Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations. .

  • Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant
    provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
  • Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers &
    privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and
    Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their
    role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of
    various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising
    out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various
    groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
    performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the
    protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,
    Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting
    India’s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests,
    Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

UPSC Syllabus PAPER-IV General Studies-III:
Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth,
    development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation
    and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues
    and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public
    Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks
    and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream
    and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on
    industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and
    developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social
    networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering
    and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

UPSC Syllabus PAPER-V General Studies- IV:
 Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude.

This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered :

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human
    actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values –
    lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour;
    moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship,
    objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical
    concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and
    conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance;
    strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international
    relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and
    probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

Optional Subject Papers I & II.

Candidate may choose any optional subject from amongst the List of Optional Subjects given below.List of optional subjects for Main Examination :

  • (i) Agriculture
  • (ii) Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
  • (iii) Anthropology
  • (iv) Botany
  • (v) Chemistry
  • (vi) Civil Engineering
  • (vii) Commerce and Accountancy
  • (viii) Economics
  • (ix) Electrical Engineering
  • (x) Geography
  • (xi) Geology
  • (xii) History
  • (xiii) Law
  • (xiv) Management
  • (xv) Mathematics
  • (xvi) Mechanical Engineering
  • (xvii) Medical Science
  • (xviii) Philosophy
  • (xix) Physics
  • (xx) Political Science and International Relations
  • (xxi) Psychology
  • (xxii) Public Administration
  • (xxiii) Sociology
  • (xxiv) Statistics
  • (xxv) Zoology
  • (xxvi) Literature of any one of the following languages:
    Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
    Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili,
    Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and English.

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Download UPSC Accounts/ Enforcement Officer Exam Syllabus 2022 pdf

Union Public Service Commission has published syllabus for the post of Accounts/ Enforcement Officer Exam .

UPSC Accounts/ Enforcement Officer Exam Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union Public Service Commission
Post Name Accounts/ Enforcement Officer Exam

UPSC Accounts/ Enforcement Officer Exam Selection Procedure 2022

  • Written Test.
  • Interview.

UPSC Accounts/ Enforcement Officer Exam Exam Pattern 2022

UPSC Accounts/ Enforcement Officer Exam Written Examination Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
General English  

















02 Hours

General Awareness ( Indian Freedom Struggle,

Current Events & Developmental Issues,

Indian Polity & Economy)

Social Security In India
Industrial Relations & Labour Laws
General Science Of Knowledge

& Computer Applications

Quantitative Aptitude & General Mental Ability
General Accounting Principles
  • The UPSC Accounts Officer Exam consists of objective type questions.
  • The number of questions in the UPSC Accounts exam is 100 questions.
  • All questions in the UPSC Accounts Exam carries equal marks.
  • The medium of the UPSC accounts test will be in English or Hindi.
  • For a wrong answer in UPSC written test, 1/3 mark will be reduced.
  • The duration of the UPSC accounts exam is 2 hours.
  • The total number of marks in the UPSC accounts written test is 100 marks.

UPSC Accounts/ Enforcement Officer Exam Written Examination Syllabus 2022

General English

  • Verb.
  • Tenses.
  • Adverb.
  • Word Formation.
  • Articles.
  • Grammar.
  • Synonyms & Antonyms.
  • Conclusion.
  • Comprehension.
  • Fill in the Blanks.
  • Subject-Verb Agreement.
  • Sentence Completion.
  • Theme detection.
  • Error Correction.
  • Unseen Passages.
  • Idioms & Phrases.
  • Passage Completion.
  • Vocabulary.
  • Sentence Rearrangement.

General Awareness

  • Scientific Research
  • Indian History
  • Awareness of current events and the environment.
  • Everyday Science
  • Indian Polity
  • Economics
  • Indian Constitution
  • Sports
  • Indian Culture
  • Indian Geography

UPSC Accounts Officer Syllabus 2022 – General Science

  • Indian Freedom Struggle.
  • Currents Events and Development Issues.
  • Indian Polity and Economy
  • Social Security in India.
  • Poisons and Pesticides
  • Organic reaction mechanism and Stereochemistry
  • Chemical Kinetics and Thermodynamics
  • Quantum Chemistry
  • Nuclear Chemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry and Instrumental methods
  • Natural Products and Drugs
  • Organometallic compounds, Bioinorganic chemistry, and Polymers
  • Electrochemistry

UPSC Accounts Officer Syllabus 2022 – Accounts

  • General Accounting Principles.
  • Industrial Relations.
  • Labour Laws.
  • Knowledge of Computer Applications.
  • Cost and Management Accountancy.
  • Auditing.
  • General and Comptroller within the Indian Constitution.
  • Business Economics and Indian Economics
  • Business Laws.
  • Taxation (Direct and Indirect).
  • Principles and Practice of Management.
  • Indian Audit and Accounts Service.

UPSC Enforcement Officer Syllabus 2022 – Mental Ability

  • Series
  • Direction and Distance
  • Classification
  • Logical Sequence of Words
  • Venn Diagrams
  • Coding and Decoding
  • Time Sequence, Number and Ranking Test
  • Number Puzzle
  • Statement and Reasoning
  • Completion of Figure
  • Blood Relation
  • Mathematical Operation
  • Analogy
  • Syllogism
  • Arithmetical Reasoning
  • Clock and Calendar
  • Cube and Dice
  • Paper Cutting and Folding
  • Matrix Reasoning
  • Visual Reasoning

UPSC Accounts Officer Syllabus 2022 – Quantitative Aptitude

  • Partnership
  • Data Interpretation
  • Area
  • Decimal Fraction
  • Ratio and Proportion
  • Simplification
  • Clocks & Calendars
  • Boats and Streams
  • Logarithm
  • Time and Distance
  • Allegation or Mixture
  • Time and Work
  • Problems on Ages
  • Blood Relations
  • Height and Distance
  • Simple Interest
  • Problems on H.C.F & L.C.M
  • Pipes and Cistern
  • Volume and Surface Area
  • Probability
  • Compound Interest
  • Surds and Indices
  • Permutation and Combination
  • Chain Rule
  • Square Root and Cube Root
  • Average

Download UPSC Accounts/ Enforcement Officer Exam Syllabus 2022

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Download UPSC Engineering Services Exam Syllabus 2022 pdf

Union Public Service Commission has published syllabus for the post of Engineering Services Exam .

UPSC Engineering Services Exam Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union Public Service Commission
Post Name Engineering Services Exam

UPSC Engineering Services Exam Selection Procedure 2022

  • Stage‐I: Engineering Services (Preliminary/Stage‐I) Examination (Objective Type Papers)
  • Stage‐II: Engineering Services (Main/Stage‐II) Examination (Conventional Type Papers)
  • Stage‐III : Personality Test

UPSC Engineering Services Stage‐I(Preliminary/Stage‐I) Examination Pattern 2022

UPSC Stage‐I Category‐I Civil Engineering Exam Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper‐I General Studies and Engineering Aptitude 200 2 hrs.
Paper‐II Civil Engineering 300 3 hrs.
UPSC Stage‐I Category‐II Mechanical Engineering Exam Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper‐I General Studies and Engineering Aptitude 200 2 hrs.
Paper‐II Mechanical Engineering 300 3 hrs.
UPSC Stage‐I Category‐III Electrical Engineering Exam Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper‐I General Studies and Engineering Aptitude 200 2 hrs.
Paper‐II Electrical Engineering 300 3 hrs.
UPSC Stage‐I Category‐IV Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Exam Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper‐I General Studies and Engineering Aptitude 200 2 hrs.
Paper‐II Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering 300 3 hrs.

UPSC Engineering Services Stage‐II(Main/Stage‐II) Examination Pattern 2022

UPSC Stage‐II Category‐I Civil Engineering Exam Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper‐I Civil Engineering 300 3 hrs.
Paper‐II Civil Engineering 300 3 hrs.
UPSC Stage‐II Category‐II Mechanical Engineering Exam Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper‐I Mechanical Engineering 300 3 hrs.
Paper‐II Mechanical Engineering 300 3 hrs.
UPSC Stage‐II Category‐III Electrical Engineering Exam Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper‐I Electrical Engineering 300 3 hrs.
Paper‐II Electrical Engineering 300 3 hrs.
UPSC Stage‐II Category‐IV Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Exam Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper‐I  Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering 300 3 hrs.
Paper‐II  Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering 300 3 hrs.

UPSC Engineering Services Stage‐III(Personality Test) Examination Pattern 2022

UPSC CAPF Interview Pattern
Category Marks
  Personality Test 200
  • Note I :The Commission will draw a list of candidates to be qualified for Engineering Services (Main/Stage‐II) Examination based on the criterion of minimum qualifying marks in General Studies and Engineering Aptitude Paper (Paper‐I) and Engineering Discipline specific paper (Paper‐II) of Preliminary/Stage‐I Examination.
  • Note II: There will be penalty (Negative Marking) for wrong answers marked by a candidate in the objective type question papers.
    (i) There are four alternative for the answers to every question. For each question for which a wrong answer has been given by the candidate, one‐third (1/3rd) of the marks assigned to that question will be deducted as penalty.
    (ii) If a candidate gives more than one answer, it will be treated as a wrong answer even if one of the given answers happen to be correct and there will be same penalty as above for that question.
    (iii) If a question is left blank i.e. no answer is given by the candidate, there will be no penalty for that question.
  • Note III:Candidates should note that if any irrelevant matter/signages/marks etc. are found written in the answer script(s), which would not be related to any question/answer and/or would be having the potential to disclose the candidate’s identity, the Commission will impose a penalty of deduction of marks from the total marks otherwise accruing to the candidate or will not evaluate the said script(s) on this account.
  • Note IV:Candidates who obtain such minimum qualifying marks in the Stage‐I: Engineering Services (Preliminary/Stage‐I) and Stage‐II: Engineering Services (Main/Stage‐II) Examination as may be fixed by the Commission as per its discretion, shall be summoned by them for Stage‐III (Personality Test). The number of candidates to be summoned for Personality Test will be about twice the number of vacancies to be filled. The Personality Test will carry 200 marks (with no minimum qualifying marks).
  • Note V:Conventional papers must be answered in English. Question paper will be set in English only.

UPSC Syllabus 2022 Engineering Services Exam Written Examination

UPSC Syllabus General Studies and Engineering Aptitude (Preliminary Examination/Stage‐I, Paper I, Objective type, Common to all  Candidates)

  • 1.Current issues of national and international importance relating to social, economic and industrial development
  • 2. Engineering Aptitude covering Logical reasoning and Analytical ability
  • 3. Engineering Mathematics and Numerical Analysis
  • 4. General Principles of Design, Drawing, Importance of Safety
  • 5. Standards and Quality practices in production, construction, maintenance and services
  • 6. Basics of Energy and Environment: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, Climate Change, Environmental impact assessment
  • 7. Basics of Project Management
  • 8. Basics of Material Science and Engineering
  • 9. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) based tools and their applications in Engineering such as networking, e‐governance and technology based education.
  • 10. Ethics and values in Engineering profession.

UPSC Syllabus Civil Engineering:Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Preliminary Examination/Stage‐I (objective type Paper–II) and separately for Main/Stage‐II Examination (Conventional type Paper‐I and Paper – II).

UPSC Syllabus PAPER – I

  • UPSC Syllabus 1. Building Materials:
    Stone, Lime, Glass, Plastics, Steel, FRP, Ceramics, Aluminum, Fly Ash, Basic Admixtures, Timber, Bricks and Aggregates: Classification, properties and selection criteria; Cement: Types, Composition, Properties, Uses, Specifications and various Tests; Lime & Cement Mortars and Concrete: Properties and various Tests; Design of Concrete Mixes: Proportioning of aggregates and methods of mix design.
  • UPSC Syllabus 2. Solid Mechanics:
    Elastic constants, Stress, plane stress, Strains, plane strain, Mohr’s circle of stress and strain, Elastic theories of failure, Principal Stresses, Bending, Shear and Torsion.
  • UPSC Syllabus 3. Structural Analysis:
    Basics of strength of materials, Types of stresses and strains, Bending moments and shear force, concept of bending and shear stresses; Analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures; Trusses, beams, plane frames; Rolling loads, Influence Lines, Unit load method & other methods; Free and Forced vibrations of single degree and multi degree freedom system; Suspended Cables; Concepts and use of Computer Aided Design.
  • UPSC Syllabus 4. Design of Steel Structures:
    Principles of Working Stress methods, Design of tension and compression members, Design of beams and beam column connections, built‐up sections, Girders, Industrial roofs, Principles of Ultimate load design.
  • UPSC Syllabus UPSC Syllabus 5. Design of Concrete and Masonry structures:
    Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined forces; Design of beams, Slabs, Lintels, Foundations, Retaining walls, Tanks, Staircases; Principles of pre‐stressed concrete design including materials and methods; Earthquake resistant design of structures; Design of Masonry Structure.
  • UPSC Syllabus 6. Construction Practice, Planning and Management:
    Construction ‐ Planning, Equipment, Site investigation and Management including Estimation with latest project management tools and network analysis for different Types of works; Analysis of Rates of various types of works; Tendering Process and Contract Management, Quality Control, Productivity, Operation Cost; Land acquisition; Labour safety and welfare.

UPSC Syllabus PAPER – II

  • UPSC Syllabus 1. Flow of Fluids, Hydraulic Machines and Hydro Power:
    (a) Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Pipe Flow:
    Fluid properties; Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; Fluid dynamics including flow kinematics and measurements; Flow net; Viscosity, Boundary layer and control, Drag, Lift, Principles in open channel flow, Flow controls. Hydraulic jump; Surges; Pipe networks.
    (b) Hydraulic Machines and Hydro power ‐
    Various pumps, Air vessels, Hydraulic turbines – types, classifications & performance parameters; Power house – classification and layout, storage, pondage, control of supply.
  • UPSC Syllabus 2. Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering:
    Hydrological cycle, Ground water hydrology, Well hydrology and related data analysis; Streams and their gauging; River morphology; Flood, drought and their management; Capacity of Reservoirs. Water Resources Engineering : Multipurpose uses of Water, River basins and their potential; Irrigation systems, water demand assessment; Resources ‐ storages and their yields; Water logging, canal and drainage design, Gravity dams, falls,
    weirs, Energy dissipaters, barrage Distribution works, Cross drainage works and head‐works and their design; Concepts in canal design, construction & maintenance; River training, measurement and analysis of rainfall.
  • UPSC Syllabus 3. Environmental Engineering:
    (a) Water Supply Engineering:
    Sources, Estimation, quality standards and testing of water and their treatment; Rural, Institutional and industrial water supply; Physical, chemical and biological characteristics and sources of water, Pollutants in water and its effects, Estimation of water demand; Drinking water Standards, Water Treatment Plants, Water distribution networks.
    (b) Waste Water Engineering:
    Planning & design of domestic waste water, sewage collection and disposal; Plumbing Systems. Components and layout of sewerage system; Planning & design of Domestic Waste‐water disposal system; Sludge management including treatment, disposal and re‐use of treated effluents; Industrial waste waters and Effluent Treatment Plants including institutional and industrial sewage management.
    (c) Solid Waste Management:
    Sources & classification of solid wastes along with planning & design of its management system; Disposal system, Beneficial aspects of wastes and Utilization by Civil Engineers.
    (d) Air, Noise pollution and Ecology:
    Concepts & general methodology.
  • UPSC Syllabus 4. Geo‐technical Engineering and Foundation Engineering :
    (a)Geo‐technical Engineering: Soil exploration ‐ planning & methods, Properties of soil, classification, various tests and inter‐relationships; Permeability & Seepage, Compressibility, consolidation and Shearing resistance, Earth pressure theories and
    stress distribution in soil; Properties and uses of geo‐synthetics.
    (b) Foundation Engineering: Types of foundations & selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement analysis, design and testing of shallow & deep foundations; Slope stability analysis, Earthen embankments, Dams and Earth retaining structures: types,
    analysis and design, Principles of ground modifications.
  • UPSC Syllabus 5. Surveying and Geology:
    (a) Surveying: Classification of surveys, various methodologies, instruments & analysis of measurement of distances, elevation and directions; Field astronomy, Global Positioning System; Map preparation; Photogrammetry; Remote sensing concepts; Survey Layout for culverts, canals, bridges, road/railway alignment and buildings, Setting out of
    (b) Geology: Basic knowledge of Engineering geology & its application in projects.
  • UPSC Syllabus 6. Transportation Engineering:
    Highways ‐ Planning & construction methodology, Alignment and geometric design; Traffic Surveys and Controls; Principles
    of Flexible and Rigid pavements design.
    Tunneling ‐ Alignment, methods of construction, disposal of muck, drainage, lighting and ventilation.
    Railways Systems – Terminology, Planning, designs and maintenance practices; track modernization.
    Harbours – Terminology, layouts and planning.
    Airports – Layout, planning & design.

UPSC Syllabus Mechanical Engineering:Contentsfor syllabi of both the Papers together for Preliminary Examination/ Stage‐I (objective type Paper–II) and separately for Main/ Stage‐II Examination (Conventional type Paper‐I and Paper – II).

UPSC Syllabus PAPER – I

  • UPSC Syllabus 1. Fluid Mechanics:
    Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids, Manometry, Fluid Statics, Buoyancy, Equations of Motion, Bernoulli’s equation and applications, Viscous flow of incompressible fluids, Laminar and Turbulent flows, Flow through pipes and head losses in pipes.
  • UPSC Syllabus 2. Thermodynamics and Heat transfer:
    Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substance; Zeroth, First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics; Entropy, Irreversibility and availability; analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion: Rankine, Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles; ideal and real gases; compressibility factor; Gas mixtures. Modes of heat transfer, Steady and unsteady heat conduction, Thermal resistance, Fins, Free and forced convection, Correlations for convective heat transfer, Radiative heat transfer – Radiation heat transfer co‐efficient; boiling and condensation, Heat exchanger performance analysis.
  • UPSC Syllabus 3. IC Engines, Refrigeration and Air conditioning:
    SI and CI Engines, Engine Systems and Components, Performance characteristics and testing of IC Engines; Fuels; Emissions and Emission Control. Vapour compression refrigeration, Refrigerants and Working cycles, Compressors, Condensers, Evaporators
    and Expansion devices, Other types of refrigeration systems like Vapour Absorption, Vapour jet, thermo electric and Vortex tube refrigeration. Psychometric properties and processes, Comfort chart, Comfort and industrial air conditioning, Load calculations and Heat pumps.
  • UPSC Syllabus 4. Turbo Machinery:
    Reciprocating and Rotary pumps, Pelton wheel, Kaplan and Francis Turbines, velocity diagrams, Impulse and Reaction principles,Steam and Gas Turbines, Theory of Jet Propulsion – Pulse jet and Ram Jet Engines, Reciprocating and Rotary Compressors – Theory and Applications
  • UPSC Syllabus 5. Power Plant Engineering:
    Rankine and Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat, Fuels and their properties, Flue gas analysis, Boilers, steam turbines and other power plant components like condensers, air ejectors, electrostatic precipitators and cooling towers – their theory and design, types and applications;
  • UPSC Syllabus 6. Renewable Sources of Energy:
    Solar Radiation, Solar Thermal Energy collection ‐ Flat Plate and focusing collectors their materials and performance. Solar Thermal Energy Storage, Applications – heating, cooling and Power Generation; Solar Photovoltaic Conversion; Harnessing of Wind Energy, Bio‐mass and Tidal Energy – Methods and Applications, Working principles of Fuel Cells.

UPSC Syllabus PAPER – II

  • UPSC Syllabus 7. Engineering Mechanics:
    Analysis of System of Forces, Friction, Centroid and Centre of Gravity, Dynamics; Stresses and Strains‐Compound Stresses and Strains, Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagrams, Theory of Bending Stresses‐ Slope and deflection‐Torsion, Thin and thick Cylinders, Spheres.
  • UPSC Syllabus 8. Engineering Materials:
    Basic Crystallography, Alloys and Phase diagrams, Heat Treatment, Ferrous and Non Ferrous Metals, Non metallic materials, Basics of Nano‐materials, Mechanical Properties and Testing, Corrosion prevention and control
  • UPSC Syllabus 9. Mechanisms and Machines:
    Types of Kinematics Pair, Mobility, Inversions, Kinematic Analysis, Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Planar Mechanisms, CAMs with uniform acceleration and retardation, cycloidal motion, oscillating followers; Vibrations –Free and forced vibration of undamped and damped SDOF systems, Transmissibility Ratio, Vibration Isolation, Critical Speed of Shafts. Gears – Geometry of tooth profiles, Law of gearing, Involute profile, Interference, Helical, Spiral and Worm Gears, Gear Trains‐ Simple, compound and Epicyclic; Dynamic Analysis – Slider – crank mechanisms, turning moment computations, balancing of Revolving & Reciprocating masses, Gyroscopes –Effect of Gyroscopic couple on automobiles, ships and aircrafts, Governors.
  • UPSC Syllabus 10. Design of Machine Elements:
    Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S‐N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as riveted, welded and bolted joints. Shafts, Spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, Brakes and clutches, flywheels.
  • UPSC Syllabus 11. Manufacturing ,Industrial and Maintenance Engineering:
    Metal casting‐Metal forming, Metal Joining, Machining and machine tool operations, Limits, fits and tolerances, Metrology and inspection, computer Integrated manufacturing, FMS, Production planning and Control, Inventory control and operations research ‐ CPM‐PERT. Failure concepts and characteristics‐Reliability, Failure analysis, Machine Vibration, Data acquisition, Fault Detection, Vibration Monitoring, Field Balancing of Rotors, Noise Monitoring, Wear and Debris Analysis, Signature Analysis, NDT Techniques in Condition Monitoring.
  • UPSC Syllabus 12. Mechatronics and Robotics:
    Microprocessors and Microcontrollers: Architecture, programming, I/O, Computer interfacing, Programmable logic controller. Sensors and actuators, Piezoelectric accelerometer, Hall effect sensor, Optical Encoder, Resolver, Inductosyn, Pneumatic and Hydraulic actuators, stepper motor, Control Systems‐ Mathematical modeling of Physical systems, control signals, controllability and observability. Robotics, Robot Classification, Robot Specification, notation; Direct and Inverse Kinematics; Homogeneous Coordinates and Arm Equation of four Axis SCARA Robot.

UPSC Syllabus Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering:Contents for syllabi of both the Papers together for Preliminary/Stage‐I Examination (objective type Paper–II) and
separately for Main/Stage‐II Examination (Conventional type Paper‐I and Paper – II).

UPSC Syllabus PAPER – I

  • UPSC Syllabus 1. Basic Electronics Engineering:
    Basics of semiconductors; Diode/Transistor basics and characteristics; Diodes for different uses; Junction & Field Effect Transistors (BJTs, JFETs, MOSFETs); Transistor amplifiers of different types, oscillators and other circuits; Basics of Integrated Circuits (ICs); Bipolar, MOS and CMOS ICs; Basics of linear ICs, operational amplifiers and their applications‐linear/non‐linear; Optical sources/detectors; Basics of Opto electronics and its applications.
  • UPSC Syllabus 2. Basic Electrical Engineering:
    DC circuits‐Ohm’s & Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, circuit theorems; Electro‐magnetism, Faraday’s & Lenz’s laws, induced EMF and its uses; Single‐phase AC circuits; Transformers, efficiency; Basics‐DC machines, induction machines, and synchronous machines; Electrical power sources‐ basics: hydroelectric, thermal, nuclear, wind, solar; Basics of batteries and their uses.
  • UPSC Syllabus 3. Materials Science:
    Electrical Engineering materials; Crystal structure & defects; Ceramic materials‐structures, composites, processing and uses; Insulating laminates for electronics, structures, properties and uses; Magnetic materials, basics, classification, ferrites, ferro/para‐magnetic materials and components; Nano materials‐basics, preparation, purification, sintering, nano particles and uses; Nano‐optical/magnetic/electronic materials and uses; Superconductivity, uses.
  • UPSC Syllabus 4. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation:
    Principles of measurement, accuracy, precision and standards; Analog and Digital systems for measurement, measuring instruments for different applications; Static/dynamic characteristics of measurement systems, errors, statistical analysis and curve fitting; Measurement systems for non‐electrical quantities; Basics of telemetry; Different types of transducers and displays; Data acquisition system basics.
  • UPSC Syllabus 5. Network Theory:
    Network graphs & matrices; Wye‐Delta transformation; Linear constant coefficient differential equations‐ time domain analysis of RLC circuits;Solution of network equations using Laplace transforms‐ frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; 2‐port network parameters‐driving point & transfer functions; State equations for networks; Steady state sinusoidal analysis.
  • UPSC Syllabus 6. Analog and Digital Circuits:
    Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTS and FETs; Diode circuits for different uses; Biasing & stability of BJT & JFET amplifier circuits; Analysis/design of amplifier‐ single/multi‐stage; Feedback& uses; Active filters, timers, multipliers, wave shaping, A/D‐D/A converters; Boolean Algebra& uses; Logic gates, Digital IC families, Combinatorial/sequential circuits; Basics of multiplexers, counters/registers/ memories /microprocessors, design& applications.

UPSC Syllabus PAPER – II

  • UPSC Syllabus 1. Analog and Digital Communication Systems:
    Random signals, noise, probability theory, information theory; Analog versus digital communication & applications: Systems‐ AM, FM, transmitters/receivers, theory/practice/ standards, SNR comparison; Digital communication basics: Sampling, quantizing, coding, PCM, DPCM, multiplexing‐audio/video; Digital modulation: ASK, FSK, PSK; Multiple access: TDMA, FDMA, CDMA; Optical communication: fibre optics, theory, practice/standards.
  • UPSC Syllabus 2. Control Systems:
    Classification of signals and systems; Application of signal and system theory; System realization; Transforms& their applications; Signal flow graphs, Routh‐Hurwitz criteria, root UPSC Syllabus loci, Nyquist/Bode plots; Feedback systems‐open &close loop types, stability analysis, steady state, transient and frequency response analysis; Design of control systems, compensators, elements of lead/lag compensation, PID and industrial controllers.
  • UPSC Syllabus 3. Computer Organization and Architecture:
    Basic architecture, CPU, I/O organisation, memory organisation, peripheral devices, trends; Hardware /software issues; Data representation& Programming; Operating systems‐basics, processes, characteristics, applications; Memory management, virtual memory, file systems, protection & security; Data bases, different types, characteristics and design; Transactions and concurrency control; Elements of programming languages, typical examples.
  • UPSC Syllabus 4. Electro Magnetics:
    Elements of vector calculus, Maxwell’s equations‐basic concepts; Gauss’, Stokes’ theorems; Wave propagation through different media; Transmission Lines‐different types, basics, Smith’s chart, impedance matching/transformation, S‐parameters, pulse excitation, uses; Waveguides‐basics, rectangular types, modes, cut‐off frequency, dispersion, dielectric
    types; Antennas‐radiation pattern, monopoles/dipoles, gain, arrays‐active/passive, theory, uses.
  • UPSC Syllabus 5. Advanced Electronics Topics:
    VLSI technology: Processing, lithography, interconnects, packaging, testing; VLSI design: Principles, MUX/ROM/PLA‐based design, Moore & Mealy circuit design; Pipeline concepts & functions; Design for testability, examples; DSP: Discrete time signals/systems, uses; Digital filters: FIR/IIR types, design, speech/audio/radar signal processing uses; Microprocessors &
    microcontrollers, basics, interrupts, DMA, instruction sets, interfacing; Controllers & uses; Embedded systems.
  • UPSC Syllabus 6. Advanced Communication Topics:
    Communication networks: Principles /practices /technologies /uses /OSI model/security; Basic packet multiplexed streams/scheduling; Cellular networks, types, analysis, protocols (TCP/TCPIP); Microwave & satellite communication: Terrestrial/space type LOS systems, block schematics link calculations, system design; Communication satellites, orbits,
    characteristics, systems, uses; Fibre‐optic communication systems, block schematics, link calculations, system design.

UPSC Syllabus 2022 Engineering Services Exam Personality Test

  • In the Personality Test special attention will be paid to assessing the candidate’s capacity for leadership, initiative and intellectual curiosity, tact and other social qualities, mental and physical energy, powers of practical application and integrity of character.
  • Marks obtained by the candidates in the Stage‐I:(Preliminary/Stage‐I) Examination, Stage‐II:(Main/Stage‐II) Examination and Stage‐III (Personality Test) would determine their final ranking. Candidates will be allotted to the various services keeping in view their ranks in the examination and the preference expressed by them for the various services/posts.

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Download UPSC CAPF Syllabus 2022 pdf

Union Public Service Commission has published syllabus for the post of CAPF .

UPSC CAPF Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union Public Service Commission
Post Name Central Armed Police Forces

UPSC CAPF Selection Procedure 2022

  • Written Examination
  • Physical Standards/Physical Efficiency Tests and Medical Standards Test
  • Interview/Personality Test
  • Final Selection / Merit

UPSC CAPF Exam Pattern 2022

UPSC CAPF Written Examination Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
Paper I General Ability and Intelligence 250 2 Hours
Paper II General Studies, Essay and Comprehension 200 3 Hours
  • NOTE‐I :The questions in this paper will be of Objective (Multiple Answers) Type in which the questions will be set in English as well as Hindi.
  • NOTE‐II:In this paper candidates will be allowed the option of writing the Essay Component in English or Hindi, but the medium of Precis Writing, Comprehension Components and other communications / language skills will be English only.
  • NOTE‐III:Candidates should ensure that in Paper II they write the answers only in the medium allowed by the Commission for the different Components as mentioned above. No credit will be given for answers written in a medium other than the one allowed in the Paper. Candidates will be required to indicate the medium of Essay Component in the Attendance Lists and on the Answer Book. No credit will be given for the Essay Component if the candidate indicates a medium on the Attendance List and on the Answer Book other than the one in which he/she has written the Essay.
  • NOTE‐IV:There will be minimum qualifying marks separately in each Paper as may be fixed by the Commission in their discretion. Paper-I will be evaluated first and evaluation of Paper-II will be done only of those candidates who obtain the minimum qualifying marks in Paper-I.
UPSC CAPF Physical Standards/Physical Efficiency Tests and Medical Standards Test Pattern
Category Males Females
100 Meters race In 16 seconds In 18 seconds
800 Meters race In 3 minutes 45 seconds In 4 minutes 45 seconds
Long Jump 3.5 Meters(3 chances) 3.0 meters (3 chances)
Shot Put (7.26 Kgs.) 4.5 Meters _
  • NOTE‐I :Pregnancy at the time of PET will be a disqualification and pregnant female candidate will be rejected.
  • NOTE‐II:Medical Standards Tests, to check the standards specified in Appendix-VI, will be conducted only in respect of candidates who are declared qualified in the Physical Efficiency Test.
  • NOTE‐III:The Physical Standards/Physical Efficiency Tests and Medical Standards Tests will be conducted under the supervision of a Nodal Authority to be appointed by the Ministry of Home Affairs. These tests will be conducted at various centres to be notified after the results of the written examination.
UPSC CAPF Interview/Personality Test Pattern
Exam Type Marks
  Interview/Personality Test 150 Marks
  • Final Selection / Merit : The merit list will be drawn on the basis of marks obtained by the
    candidates in the Written Examination and Interview/Personality Test.

UPSC CAPF Written Examination Syllabus 2022

UPSC Syllabus Written Examination Paper I : 
General Ability and Intelligence: The objective type questions with multiple choices in this paper will broadly cover the following areas:

  • 1. General Mental Ability
    The questions will be designed to test the logical reasoning, quantitative aptitude including numerical ability, and data interpretation.
  • 2. General Science
    The questions will be set to test general awareness, scientific temper, comprehension and
    appreciation of scientific phenomena of everyday observation including new areas of importance like Information Technology, Biotechnology, Environmental Science.
  • 3. Current Events of National and International Importance:
    The questions will test the candidates’ awareness of current events of national and international importance in the broad areas of culture, music, arts, literature, sports, governance, societal and developmental issues, industry, business, globalisation, and interplay among nations.
  • 4. Indian Polity and Economy:
    The questions shall aim to test candidates’ knowledge of the Country’s political system and the Constitution of India, social systems and public administration, economic development in India, regional and international security issues and human rights including its indicators.
  • 5. History of India :
    The questions will broadly cover the subject in its social, economic and political aspects. This shall also include the areas of growth of nationalism and freedom movement.
  • 6. Indian and World Geography:
    The questions shall cover the physical, social and economic aspects of geography pertaining to India and the World.

UPSC Syllabus Written Examination Paper II :
General Studies, Essay and Comprehension

  • Part‐A – Essay questions which are to be answered in long narrative form either in Hindi or English totaling 80 Marks. The indicative topics are modern Indian history especially of the freedom struggle,geography, polity and economy, knowledge of security and human rights issues, and analytical ability.
  • Part‐B – Comprehension, précis writing, other communications/language skills – to be attempted in English only (Marks 120) – The topics are Comprehension passages, précis writing, developing counter arguments, simple grammar and other aspects of language testing.

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Download UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Examination, 2022 Syllabus 2022 pdf

Union Public Service Commission has published syllabus for the post of Combined Geo-Scientist Examination, 2022 .

UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Examination, 2022 Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union Public Service Commission
Post Name Combined Geo-Scientist Examination, 2022

UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Examination, 2022 Selection Procedure 2022

  • Stage-I: Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination (Objective Type Papers) for the selection of candidates for the Stage-II:Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination
  • Stage-II: Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination (Descriptive Type Papers).
  • Stage-III: Personality Test.

UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Examination, 2022 Exam Pattern 2022

  • A. Stage-I : Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination [Objective-type]:-
    The Examination shall comprise of two papers.
UPSC Stream-I : Geologist & Jr. Hydrogeologist
Subject Duration Maximum Marks
Paper-I : General Studies 2 Hours 100 Marks
Paper-II : Geology / Hydrogeolog 2 Hours 300 Marks
Total    400 Marks
UPSC Stream-II : Geophysicist
Subject Duration Maximum Marks
Paper-I : General Studies 2 Hours 100 Marks
Paper-II : Geophysics 2 Hours 300 Marks
Total    400 Marks
UPSC Stream-III : Chemist Pattern
Subject Duration Maximum Marks
Paper-I : General Studies 2 Hours 100 Marks
Paper-II :Chemistry 2 Hours 300 Marks
Total    400 Marks
  • B. Stage-II : Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination [Descriptive-type]:-
    The Examination shall comprise of three papers in each stream.
UPSC Stream-I : Geologist
Subject Duration Maximum Marks
Paper-I: Geology 3 Hours 200 Marks
Paper-II : Geology 3 Hours 200 Marks
Paper-III : Geology 3 Hours 200 Marks
   Total 600 Marks
UPSC Stream-II : Geophysicist
Subject Duration Maximum Marks
Paper-I: Geophysics 3 Hours 200 Marks
Paper-II : Geophysics 3 Hours 200 Marks
Paper-III : Geophysics 3 Hours 200 Marks
   Total 600 Marks
UPSC Stream-III : Chemist
Subject Duration Maximum Marks
Paper-I: Chemistry 3 Hours 200 Marks
Paper-II : Chemistry 3 Hours 200 Marks
Paper-III : Chemistry 3 Hours 200 Marks
   Total 600 Marks
UPSC Stream-IV : Jr. Hydrogeologist
Subject Duration Maximum Marks
Paper-I: Geology 3 Hours 200 Marks
Paper-II : Geology 3 Hours 200 Marks
Paper-III : Hydrogeology 3 Hours 200 Marks
   Total 600 Marks
  • C. Stage-III : Personality Test – 200 Marks

UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination Syllabus 2022

  • Stage-I (Objective Type)

UPSC Syllabus Paper-I : General Studies (Common for all streams)

  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography -Physical, Social, Economic Geography of
    India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance -Constitution, Political System, Panchayati
    Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty,
    Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate
    Change – that do not require subject specialisation
  • General Science

UPSC Syllabus Paper-II : Geology/Hydrogeology

  • Physical Geology
    Principle of uniformitarianism; origin, differentiation and internal structure of the Earth; origin of atmosphere; earthquakes and volcanoes;continental drift, sea-floor spreading, isostasy, orogeny and plate tectonics; geological action of rivers, wind, glaciers, waves; erosional and depositional landforms; weathering processes and products.
  • Structural Geology
    Stress, strain and rheological properties of rocks; planar and linear structures; classification of folds and faults; Mohr’s circle and criteria for failure of rocks; ductile and brittle shear in rocks; study of toposheets, V-rules and outcrop patterns; stereographic projections of structural elements.
  • Mineralogy
    Elements of symmetry, notations and indices; Bravais lattices; chemical classification of minerals; isomorphism, polymorphism, solid solution and exsolution; silicate structures; physical and optical properties of common rock forming minerals- olivine, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar and quartz.
  • Igneous Petrology
    Magma types and their evolution; IUGS classification of igneous rocks;forms, structures and textures of igneous rocks; applications of binary and ternary phase diagrams in petrogenesis; magmatic differentiation and assimilation; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, komatiiites and alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamprophyre and nepheline syenite).
  • Metamorphic Petrology
    Limits, types and controls of metamorphism; metamorphic structuresslate, schist and gneiss; metamorphic textures- pre, syn and post tectonic porphyroblasts; concept of metamorphic zone, isograd and facies; geothermal gradients, facies series and plate tectonics.
  • Sedimentology
    Origin of sediments; sedimentary textures, grain-size scale; primary sedimentary structures; classification of sandstone and carbonate rocks; siliciclastic depositional environments and sedimentary facies; diagenesis of carbonate sediments.
  • Paleontology
    Fossils and processes of fossilization; concept of species and binomial nomenclature; morphology and classification of invertebrates (Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods); evolution in Equidae and Hominidae; microfossils-Foraminifera, Ostracoda; Gondwana flora.
  • Stratigraphy
    Law of superposition; stratigraphic nomenclature- lithostratigraphy,biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy; Archaean cratonic nucleii of Peninsular India (Dharwar, Singhbhum, and Aravalli cratons); Proterozoic mobile belts (Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi and Eastern Ghats); Purana sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic stratigraphy of India- Spiti, Kashmir, Damodar valley, Kutch, Trichinopoly, Siwaliks and Indo-Gangetic alluvium.
  • Economic Geology
    Properties of mineral deposits- form, mineral assemblage, texture, rockore association and relationship; magmatic, sedimentary, metamorphic,
    hydrothermal, supergene and weathering-related processes of ore formation;
    processes of formation of coal and petroleum; distribution and geological
    characteristics of major mineral and hydrocarbon deposits of India.
  • Hydrogeology
    Groundwater occurrence and aquifer characteristics, porosity,permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity; Darcy’s Law in homogenous and heterogenous media; Bernoulli equation, Reynold’s number; composition of groundwater; application of H and O isotopes in groundwater studies; artificial recharge of groundwater.

UPSC Syllabus Paper-II : Geology/Hydrogeology

  • Solid Earth Geophysics:
    Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar system: origin, formation and characteristics of planets, Earth: shape and rotation. Gravity and magnetic fields of earth. Geomagnetism, elements of earth’s magnetism, Rock and mineral magnetism, Elastic waves, types and their propagation characteristics, internal structure of earth, variation of physical properties in the interior of earth. Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and their causes, focal depth, epicenter, Intensity and Magnitude scales, Energy of earthquakes, Seismicity.
  • Mathematical Methods in Geophysics:
    Elements of vector analysis, Vector algebra, Properties of scalars, vectors and tensors, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem. Matrices, Eigen values and Eigen vectors and their applications in geophysics. Newton’s Law of gravitation, Gravity potential and gravity fields due to bodies of different geometric shapes. Basic Forces of Nature and their strength: Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak forces.Conservation Laws in Physics: Energy, Linear and angular momentum. Rigid
    body motion and moment of inertia. Basics of special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformation.
    Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition of inversion and application to Geophysics. Forward and Inverse problems. Probability theory,Random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions. Linear algebra,Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second order. Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions). Elements of numerical techniques: root of functions, interpolation,and extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, solution of first order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method, Introduction to finite difference and finite elements methods.
  • Electromagnetism:
    Electrostatic and magneto-static fields, Coulomb’s law, Electrical permittivity and dielectric constant, Lorentz force and their applications.Ampere’s law, Biot and Savart’s law, Gauss’s Theorem, Poisson’s equation.Laplace’s equation: solution of Laplace’s equation in Cartesian coordinates, use of Laplace’s equation in the solutions of geophysical and electrostatic problems.Displacement current, Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Maxwell’s equations. Boundary conditions. Wave equation, plane electromagnetic waves in free space, dielectric and conducting media, electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials.
  • Geophysical Prospecting:
    Elements of geophysical methods: Principles, data reduction and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic and well logging methods. Fundamentals of seismic methods: Fermat’s Principle, Snell’s Law,Energy portioning, Reflection and transmission coefficients, Reflection and Refraction from layered media. Signals and systems, sampling theorem, aliasing effect, Fourier series and periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its application, Laplace transforms, Convolution, Auto and cross correlations,Power spectrum, Delta function, unit step function.
  • Remote Sensing and Thermodynamics:
    Fundamentals of remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum, energyfrequency-wavelength relationship, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Wien’s Law,electromagnetic energy and its interactions in the atmosphere and with terrain features. Planck’s Radiation Law. Laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potential.
  • Nuclear Physics and Radiometry:
    Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity;Binding energy, semi-empirical mass formula; Fission and fusion. Principles of radioactivity, Alpha, beta and gamma decays, Photoelectric and Compton Effect,Pair Production, radioactivity decay law, radioactivity of rocks and minerals,Radiation Detectors: Ionization chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter and Gamma ray spectrometer. Matter Waves and wave particle duality, Electron spin, Spectrum of Hydrogen, helium and alkali atoms.

UPSC Syllabus Paper-II : Chemistry

  • Chemical periodicity:
    Schrödinger equation for the H-atom. Radial distribution curves for 1s,2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d orbitals. Electronic configurations of multi-electron atoms.
    Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in physical properties.
    Classification of elements on the basis of electronic configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristics of s, p, d and f block elements.Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, atomic radii, ionic radii, covalent radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity. Group trends and periodic trends in these properties in respect of s-, p- and d-block elements. General trends of variation of electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, magnetic properties, catenation and catalytic properties, oxidation states, aqueous and redox chemistry in common oxidation states,properties and reactions of important compounds such as hydrides, halides,oxides, oxy-acids, complex chemistry in respect of s-block and p-block elements.
  • Chemical bonding and structure:
    Ionic bonding: Size effects, radius ratio rules and their limitations.Packing of ions in crystals, lattice energy, Born-Landé equation and its applications, Born-Haber cycle and its applications. Solvation energy, polarizing power and polarizability, ionic potential, Fajan’s rules. Defects in solids.
    Covalent bonding: Valence Bond Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, hybridization. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.
    Coordinate bonding: Werner theory of coordination compounds, double salts and complex salts. Ambidentate and polydentate ligands, chelate complexes.IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds. Coordination numbers,Geometrical isomerism. Stereoisomerism in square planar and octahedral complexes.
  • Acids and bases:
    Chemical and ionic equilibrium. Strengths of acids and bases. Ionization of weak acids and bases in aqueous solutions, application of Ostwald’s dilution law, ionization constants, ionic product of water, pH-scale, effect of temperature on pH, buffer solutions and their pH values, buffer action & buffer capacity;different types of buffers and Henderson’s equation.
  • Theoretical basis of quantitative inorganic analysis:
    Volumetric Analysis: Equivalent weights, different types of solutions, normal and molar solutions. Primary and secondary standard substances.General principles of different types of titrations: i) acid-base, ii) redox, iii)complexometric, iv) Precipitation. Types of indicators – i) acid-base, ii) redox iii)metal-ion indicators.
  • Kinetic theory and the gaseous state:
    Kinetic theory of gases, average kinetic energy of translation, Boltzmann constant and absolute scale of temperature. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds. Calculations of average, root mean square and most probable velocities.Collision diameter; collision number and mean free path; frequency of binary collisions; wall collision and rate of effusion.
  • Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium:
    First law and its applications to chemical problems. Thermodynamic functions. Total differentials and state functions. Free expansion, JouleThomson coefficient and inversion temperature. Hess’ law.Applications of Second law of thermodynamics. Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A), Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity of chemical processes.
  • Solutions of non-electrolytes:
    Colligative properties of solutions, Raoult’s Law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, osmosis and osmotic pressure; elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point of solvents. Solubility of gases in liquids and solid solutions.
  • Electrochemistry:
    Cell constant, specific conductance and molar conductance. Kohlrausch’s law of independent migration of ions, ion conductance and ionic mobility.Equivalent and molar conductance at infinite dilution. Debye-Hückel theory.Application of conductance measurements. Conductometric titrations. Determination of transport number by moving boundary method.
  • Basic organic chemistry:
    Delocalized chemical bond, resonance, conjugation, hyperconjugation,hybridisation, orbital pictures of bonding sp3, sp2, sp: C-C, C-N and C-O system), bond polarization and bond polarizability. Reactive intermediates:General methods of formation, relative stability and reactivity of carbocations,carbanions and free radicals.
  • Stereochemistry:
    Configuration and chirality (simple treatment of elements of symmetry),optical isomerism of compounds containing two to three stereogenic centres, R,S nomenclature, geometrical isomerism in compounds containing two C=C double bonds (E,Z naming), and simple cyclic systems, Newman projection (ethane andsubstituted ethane).
  • Types of organic reactions:
    Aliphatic substitution reactions: SN1, SN2 mechanisms, stereochemistry,relative reactivity in aliphatic substitutions. Effect of substrate structure,attacking nucleophile, leaving group and reaction medium and competitive reactions.
    Elimination reactions: E1, E2, mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic eliminations. Effect of substrate structure, attacking base, leaving group, reaction medium and competitive reactions, orientation of the double bond, Saytzeff and Hoffman rules.
    Addition reactions: Electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical addition reactions at carbon-carbon double bonds.
    Electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution: Electrophilic(halogenation, sulphonation, nitration, Friedal-Crafts alkylation and acylation),nucleophilic (simple SNAr, SN1 and aryne reactions). Molecular Rearrangements:Acid induced rearrangement and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements. Neighbouring group participation.

UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination Syllabus 2022

  • Stage-II (Descriptive Type)

UPSC Syllabus Geology : Paper-I

  • Section A. Physical geology and remote sensing Evolution of Earth;
    Earth’s internal structure; earthquakes and volcanoes;principles of geodesy, isostasy; weathering- processes and products;geomorphic landforms formed by action of rivers, wind, glaciers, waves and groundwater; features of ocean floor; continental shelf, slope and rise; concepts of landscape evolution; major geomorphic features of India- coastal, peninsular and extrapeninsular.
    Electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic bands in remote sensing; spectral signatures of soil, rock, water and vegetation; thermal, near infra-red and microwave remote sensing; digital image processing; LANDSAT, IRS and SPOTcharacteristics and use; aerial photos- types, scale, parallax, relief displacement; elements of image interpretation.
  • Section B. Structural geology
    Principles of geological mapping; kinematic and dynamic analysis of deformation; stress-strain relationships for elastic, plastic and viscous materials; measurement of strain in deformed rocks; structural analysis of fold,cleavage, boudin, lineation, joint, and fault; stereographic projection of linear and planar structures; superposed deformation; deformation at microscaledynamic and static recrystallisation, controls of strain rate and temperature on development of microfabrics; brittle and ductile shear zones; time relationship between crystallisation and deformation, calculation of paleostress.
  • Section C. Sedimentology
    Classification of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary textures- grain size,roundness, sphericity, shape and fabric; quantitative grain size analysis; sediment transport and deposition- fluid and sediment gravity flows, laminar and turbulent flows, Reynold’s number, Froude number, grain entrainment,Hjulstrom diagram, bed load and suspension load transport; primary sedimentary structures; penecontemporaneous deformation structure; biogenic structures; principles and application of paleocurrent analysis; composition and significance of different types of sandstone, limestone, banded iron formation,mudstone, conglomerate; carbonate diagenesis and dolomitisation; sedimentary environments and facies- facies models for fluvial, glacial, deltaic, siliciclastic shallow and deep marine environments; carbonate platforms- types and facies models; sedimentation in major tectonic settings; principles of sequence stratigraphy- concepts and factors controlling base level changes, parasequence,clinoform, systems tract, unconformity and sequence boundary.
  • Section D. Paleontology
    Fossil record and geological time scale; modes of preservation of fossils and concept of taphonomy; body- and ichno-fossils, species concept, organic evolution, Ediacara Fauna; morphology and time range of Graptolites, Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods, Cephalopods, Echinoids and Corals; evolutionary trends in Trilobites, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods; mmicropaleontology- methods of preparation of microfossils, morphology of microfossil groups (Foraminifera, Ostracoda), fossil spores, pollen and dinoflagellates; Gondwana plant fossils and their significance; vertebrate life through ages, evolution in Proboscidea, Equidae and Hominidae; applications of paleontological data in stratigraphy, paleoecology and paleoclimatology; mass
  • Section E. Stratigraphy
    Principles of stratigraphy- code of stratigraphic nomenclature of India; lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy; principles of stratigraphic correlation; characteristics of Archean granitegreenstone belts; Indian stratigraphy- geological evolution of Archean nucleii (Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum, Aravalli and Bundelkhand); Proterozoic mobile belts- Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, Southern Granulite Terrain, Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi Belt, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt; Proterozoic sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic stratigraphyPaleozoic (Spiti, Kashmir and Kumaon), Mesozoic (Spiti, Kutch, Narmada Valley and Trichinopoly), Gondwana Supergroup, Cenozoic (Assam, Bengal basins,Garhwal-Shimla Himalayas); Siwaliks; boundary problems in Indianstratigraphy.

UPSC Syllabus Geology : Paper-II 

  • Section A. Mineralogy
    Symmetry, motif, Miller indices; concept of unit cell and Bravais lattices; 32 crystal classes; types of bonding, Pauling’s rules and coordination polyhedra; crystal imperfections- defects, twinning and zoning; polymorphism,pseudomorphism, isomorphism and solid solution; physical properties of minerals; polarising microscope and accessory plate; optical properties of minerals- double refraction, polarisation, pleochroism, sign of elongation, interference figure and optic sign; structure, composition, physical and optical properties of major rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet, aluminosilicates,pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, clay, silica and spinel group.
  • Section B. Geochemistry and isotope geology
    Chemical composition and characteristics of atmosphere, lithosphere,hydrosphere; geochemical cycles; meteorites- types and composition;Goldschmidt’s classification of elements; fractionation of elements in minerals/rocks; Nernst’s partition coefficient (compatible and incompatible elements), Nernst-Berthelot partition coefficient and bulk partition coefficient;Fick’s laws of diffusion and activity composition relation (Roult’s and Henry’s law); application of trace elements in petrogenesis; principles of equilibrium and Rayleigh fractionation; REE patterns, Eh and pH diagrams and mineral stability.Half-life and decay equation; dating of minerals and rocks with potassiumargon, rubidium-strontium, uranium-lead and samarium-neodymium isotopes; petrogenetic implications of samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium systems; stable isotope geochemistry of carbon, oxygen and sulphur and their applications in geology; monazite chemical dating.
  • Section C. Igneous petrology
    Viscosity, temperature and pressure relationships in magmas; IUGS classification of plutonic and volcanic rocks; nucleation and growth of minerals in magmatic rocks, development of igneous textures; magmatic evolution (differentiation, assimilation, mixing and mingling); types of mantle melting (batch, fractional and dynamic); binary (albite-anorthite, forsterite-silica and diopside-anorthite) and ternary (diopside forsterite-silica, diopside-forsteriteanorthite and nepheline-kalsilite-silica) phase diagrams and relevance to magmatic crystallization; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, ophiolite suite,
    komatiites, syenites, boninites, anorthosites and layered complexes, and alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre); mantle metasomatism, hotspot magmatism and large igneous provinces of India.
  • Section D. Metamorphic petrology
    Limits and physico-chemical controls (pressure, temperature, fluids and bulk rock composition) of metamorphism; concept of zones, facies, isograds and facies series, geothermal gradients and tectonics of orogenic belts; structures, micro-structures and textures of regional and contact metamorphic rocks; representation of metamorphic assemblages (ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams);equilibrium concept in thermodynamics; laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy,entropy, Gibb’s free energy, chemical potential, fugacity and activity; tracing the chemical reactions in P-T space, phase rule and mineralogical phase rule in multi-component system; Claussius-Clapeyron equation and slopes of metamorphic reactions; heat flow, diffusion and mass transfer; Fourier’s law of heat conduction; geothermobarometry; mass and energy change during fluidrock interactions; charnockite problem, formation of skarns, progressive and retrogressive metamorphism of pelitic, calcareous and basic rocks; P-T-t path and tectonic setting.
  • Section E. Geodynamics
    Phase transitions and seismic discontinuities in the Earth; seismic waves and relation between Vp, Vs and density; seismic and petrological Moho; rheology of rocks and fluids (Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids); rock magnetism and its origin; polarity reversals, polar wandering and supercontinent cycles; continental drift, sea floor spreading; gravity and magnetic anomalies of ocean floors and their significance; mantle p

UPSC Syllabus Geology : Paper-III

  • Section A. Economic geology
    Ore minerals and industrial minerals; physical and optical properties of ore minerals; ore textures and paragenesis; characteristics of mineral depositsspatial and temporal distribution, rock-ore association; syngenetic and epigenetic deposits, forms of ore bodies, stratiform and strata-bound deposits;ore forming processes- source and migration of ore constituents and ore fluid,mechanism of ore deposition; magmatic and pegmatitic deposits (chromite, Timagnetite, diamond, Cu-Ni sulphide, PGE, REE, muscovite, rare metals);hydrothermal deposits (porphyry Cu-Mo, greisen Sn-W, skarn, VMS and SEDEX type sulphide deposits, orogenic gold); sedimentary deposits (Fe, Mn,phosphorite, placer); supergene deposits (Cu, Al, Ni and Fe); metamorphic and metamorphosed deposits (Mn, graphite); fluid inclusions in ore mineral assemblage- physical and chemical properties, microthermometry; stable
    isotope (S, C, O, H) in ore genesis- geothermometry, source of ore constituents;global tectonics and mineralisation.
  • Section B. Indian mineral deposits and mineral economics
    Distribution of mineral deposits in Indian shield; geological characteristics of important industrial mineral and ore deposits in India- chromite, diamond,muscovite, Cu-Pb-Zn, Sn-W, Au, Fe-Mn, bauxite; minerals used in refractory,fertilizer, ceramic, cement, glass, paint industries; minerals used as abrasive, filler; building stones.
    Strategic, critical and essential minerals; India’s status in mineral production;co-products and by-products; consumption, substitution and conservation of minerals; National Mineral Policy; Mineral Concession Rules; marine mineral resources and laws of the sea.
  • Section C. Mineral exploration
    Stages of exploration; scope, objectives and methods of prospecting, regional exploration and detailed exploration; geological, geochemical and geobotanical methods; litho-, bio-, soil geochemical surveys, mobility and dispersion of elements, geochemical anomalies; ore controls and guides; pitting, trenching,drilling; sampling, assaying, ore reserve estimation; categorization of ore reserves; geophysical methods- ground and airborne surveys; gravity, magnetic,electrical and seismic methods of mineral exploration.
  • Section D. Fuel geology and Engineering geology
    Coal and its properties; proximate and ultimate analysis; different varieties and ranks of coal; concept of coal maturity, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal; origin of coal, coalification process; lithotypes, microlithotypes and maceral groups of coal; mineral and organic matter in coal; lignite and coal deposits of India; origin, migration and entrapment of natural hydrocarbons; characteristics of source and reservoir rocks; structural, stratigraphic and mixed traps;geological, geochemical and geophysical methods of hydrocarbon exploration;petroliferous basins of India; geological characteristics and genesis of major
    types of U deposits and their distribution in India.Engineering properties of rocks; geological investigations in construction of dams, reservoirs, tunnels, bridges, highways and coastal protection structures;geologic considerations of construction materials.
  • Section E. Environmental geology and Natural hazards
    Stefan-Boltzmann equation and planetary temperature; cause and effects of global climate change; Earth’s radiation budget; greenhouse gases and effect;examples of positive and negative feedback mechanisms; biogeochemical cycle of carbon; geological investigations of nuclear waste disposal sites; marginal marine environments- estuaries, mangroves and lagoons; ozone hole depletion,ocean acidification, coral bleaching, Milankovitch cycle, sea level rise,eutrophication and acid rain; environmental impacts of urbanization, mining
    and hydropower projects; water pollution, water logging and soil erosion;Himalayan glaciers; causes and consequences of earthquakes, volcanoes,tsunami, floods, landslides, coastal erosion, droughts and desertification;application of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in environmental management.

UPSC Syllabus Hydrogeology

  • Section A. Occurrence and distribution of groundwater
    Origin of water on Earth; global water cycle and budget; residence time concept,geologic formations as aquifers; confined and unconfined aquifers; groundwater table mapping and piezometric nests; porosity, void ratio, effective porosity and representative porosity range; primary and secondary porosities; groundwater zonation; specific retention, specific yield; groundwater basins; springs.
  • Section B. Groundwater movement and well hydraulics
    Groundwater flow concepts; Darcy’s Law in isotropic and anisotropic media and validity; water flow rates, direction and water volume in aquifers; permeability and hydraulic conductivity and ranges in representative rocks; Bernoulli equation; determination of hydraulic conductivity in field and laboratory;concept of groundwater flow through dispersion and diffusion; transmissivity and aquifer thickness.
  • Section C. Water wells and groundwater levels
    Unidirectional and radial flow to a well (steady and unsteady); well flow near aquifer boundaries; methods for constructing shallow wells, drilling wells, well completion; testing wells, pumping test, slug tests for confined and unconfined aquifers; fluctuations in groundwater levels; stream flow and groundwater flows;groundwater level fluctuations; land subsidence; impact of global climate change on groundwater.
  • Section D. Groundwater exploration
    Surface investigation of groundwater- geologic, remote sensing, electrical resistivity, seismic, gravity and magnetic methods; sub-surface investigation of groundwater- test drilling, resistivity logging, spontaneous potential logging,radiation logging.
  • Section E. Groundwater quality and management
    Groundwater composition, units of expression, mass-balance calculations; rockwater interaction (chemical equilibrium, free energy, redox reactions and cation/anion exchanges), graphic representation of chemical data; groundwater hardness, microorganisms in groundwater; water quality standards; sea-water intrusion; groundwater issues due to urbanization; solid and liquid waste disposal and plume migration models; application of isotopes (H, C, O) in groundwater; concepts of artificial recharge methods; managing groundwater resources; groundwater basin investigations and management practices.

UPSC Syllabus Geophysics : Paper-I

  • A1. Solid Earth Geophysics:
    Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar system: origin,characteristics of planets, Earth: rotation and figure, Geoid, Spheroid and topography. Plate tectonics and Geodynamic processes, Thermal history and heat flow, Temperature variation in the earth, convection currents. Gravity field of earth and Isostasy. Geomagnetism, elements of earth’s magnetism: Internal and External fields and their causes, Paleomagnetism, Polar wandering paths, Continental drift, Seafloor spreading and its geophysical evidences. Elastic Waves, Body Waves and internal structure of earth, variation of physical properties in the interior of earth, Adam-Williamson’s Equation.
  • A2. Earthquake Seismology:
    Seismology, earthquakes, focal depth, epicenter, great Indian earthquakes,Intensity and Magnitude scales, Energy of earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks,Elastic rebound theory,Types and Nature of faulting, Fault plane solutions,Seismicity and Seismotectonics of India, Frequency-Magnitude relation (bvalues). Bulk and rigidity modulus, Lame’s Parameter, Seismic waves: types and their propagation characteristics, absorption, attenuation and dispersion.Seismic ray theory for spherically and horizontally stratified earth, basic principles of Seismic Tomography and receiver function analysis, Velocity structure, Vp/Vs studies, Seismic network and arrays, telemetry systems,Principle of electromagnetic seismograph, displacement meters, velocity meters,accelerometers, Broadband Seismometer, WWSSN stations, seismic arrays for detection of nuclear explosions. Earthquake prediction; dilatancy theory, short-,medium- and long- term predictions, Seismic microzonations, Applications for engineering problems.
  • A3. Mathematical methods in Geophysics:
    Elements of vector analysis, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem, Gravitational field, Newton’s Law of gravitation,Gravitation potential and fields due to bodies of different geometric shapes,Coulomb’s law, Electrical permittivity and dielectric constant, Origin of Magnetic field, Ampere’s law, Biot and Savart’s law, Geomagnetic fields, Magnetic fields due to different type of structures, Solution of Laplace equation in Cartesian,
    Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates, Image theory, Electrical fields due to
    charge, point source, continuous charge distribution and double layers,
    equipotential and line of force. Current and potential in the earth, basic concept
    and equations of electromagnetic induction, Maxwell’s Equation, near and far
    fields, Attenuation of EM waves, EM field of a loops of wire on half space and
    multi-layered media.
  • A4. Geophysical Inversion:
    Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition and its application to Geophysics. Probability, Inversion with discrete and continuous models.Forward problems versus Inverse problems, direct and model based inversions,Formulation of inverse problems, classification of inverse problems, least square solutions and minimum norm solution, concept of norms, Jacobian matrix,Condition number, Stability, non-uniqueness and resolution of inverse problems, concept of ‘a priori’ information, constrained linear least squares inversion, review of matrix theory. Models and data spaces, data resolution matrix, model resolution matrix, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, singular value decomposition (SVD), Gauss Newton method, steepest descent (gradient) method, Marquardt-Levenberg method. Probabilistic approach of inverse problems, maximum likelihood and stochastic inverse methods, Random search inversion (Monte-Carlo) Backus-Gilbert method, Bayesian Theorem and Inversion. Global optimization techniques: genetic algorithm and simulated annealing methods.

UPSC Syllabus PART-B:

  • B1. Mathematical Methods of Physics:
    Dimensional analysis; Units and measurement; Vector algebra and vector calculus; Linear algebra, Matrices: Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second order; Special functions(Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre); Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms; Elementary probability theory, Random variables, Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions; Green’s function; Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions); Elements of numerical techniques: root of functions, interpolation, and extrapolation,integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, solution of first order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method; Tensors; Complex variables and analysis;Analytic functions; Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues and evaluation of integrals; Beta and Gamma functions. Operators and their properties; Leastsquares fitting.
  • B2. Electrodynamics:
    Electrostatics: Gauss’ Law and its applications; Laplace and Poisson equations,Boundary value problems; Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s theorem;Ampere’s circuital law; Magnetic vector potential; Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction; Electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials;Uniqueness of electromagnetic potentials and concept of gauge: Lorentz and Coulomb gauges; Lorentz force; Charged particles in uniform and non-uniform
    electric and magnetic fields; Poynting theorem; Electromagnetic fields from Lienard-Wiechert potential of a moving charge; Bremsstrahlung radiation;Cerenkov radiation; Radiation due to oscillatory electric dipole; Condition for plasma existence; Occurrence of plasma; Magnetohydrodynamics; Plasma waves; Transformation of electromagnetic potentials; Lorentz condition;Invariance or covariance of Maxwell field equations in terms of 4 vectors; Electromagnetic field tensor; Lorentz transformation of electric and magnetic fields.
  • B3. Electromagnetic Theory:
    Maxwell’s equations: its differential and integral forms, physical significance;Displacement current; Boundary conditions; Wave equation, Plane electromagnetic waves in: free space, non-conducting isotropic medium,conducting medium; Scalar and vector potentials; Reflection; refraction of electromagnetic waves; Fresnel’s Law; interference; coherence; diffraction and polarization; Lorentz invariance of Maxwell’s equations; Transmission lines and waveguides.
  • B4. Introductory Atmospheric and Space Physics:
    The neutral atmosphere; Atmospheric nomenclature; Height profile of atmosphere; Hydrostatic equation; Geopotential height; Expansion and contraction; Fundamental forces in the atmosphere; Apparent forces;Atmospheric composition; Solar radiation interaction with the neutral atmosphere; Climate change; Electromagnetic radiation and propagation of
    Waves: EM Radiation; Effects of environment; Antennas: basic considerations,types. Propagation of waves: ground wave, sky wave, and space wave propagation; troposcatter communication and extra terrestrial communication;The Ionosphere; Morphology of ionosphere: the D, E and F-regions; Chemistry of the ionosphere Ionospheric parameters E and F region anomalies and irregularities in the ionosphere; Global Positioning Systems (GPS): overview of GPS system, augmentation services GPS system segment; GPS signal
    characteristics; GPS errors; multi path effects; GPS performance; Satellite navigation system and applications.

UPSC Syllabus Geophysics : Paper-II

  • A1. Potential Field (Gravity and Magnetic) Methods:
    Geophysical potential fields, Inverse square law, Principles of Gravity and Magnetic methods, Global gravity anomalies, Newtonian and logarithmic potential, Laplace’s equations for potential field. Green’s Function, Concept of gravity anomaly, Rock densities, factors controlling rock densities,determination of density, Earth’s main magnetic field, origin, diurnal and secular variations of the field, Geomagnetic elements, intensity of magnetization and induction, magnetic potential and its relation to field, units of measurement, interrelationship between different components of magnetic fields, Poisson’s relation, Magnetic susceptibility, factors controlling susceptibility. Magnetic Mineralogy: Hysteresis, rock magnetism, natural, and remnant magnetization, demagnetization effects. Principles of Gravity and
    Magnetic instruments, Plan of conducting gravity and magnetic surveys, Gravity and Magnetic data reduction, Gravity bases, International Gravity formula,IGRF corrections. Concept of regional and residual anomalies and various methods of their separation, Edge Enhancement Techniques (Derivatives,Continuation, Analytical Signal, Reduced to Pole and Euler Deconvolution),ambiguity in potential field interpretation, Factors affecting magnetic anomalies,Application of gravity and magnetics in geodynamic, mineral exploration and
    environmental studies. Qualitative interpretation, Interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies due to different geometry shaped bodies and modeling.
  • A2. Electrical and Electromagnetic methods:
    Electrical properties of rocks and minerals, concepts and assumptions of horizontally stratified earth, anisotropy and its effects on electrical fields,geoelectric and geological sections, D.C Resistivity method. Concept of natural electric field, various electrode configurations, Profiling and Sounding (VES).Tpes of Sounding curves, Equivalence and Suppression, Concept of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). SP Method:, Origin of SP, application of SP surveys. Induced Polarization (IP) Method: Origin of IP, Membrane and Electrode polarization, time and frequency domains of measurement, chargeability,percent frequency effect and metal factor, Application of IP surveys for mineral exploration. Electromagnetic methods, Passive and Active source methods,Diffusion equation, wave equation and damped wave equation used in EM method, boundary conditions, skin depth, depth of investigation and depth of penetration, amplitude and phase relations, real and imaginary components,elliptical polarization, Principles of EM prospecting, various EM methods: Dip angle, Turam, moving source-receiver methods-horizontal loop (Slingram),
    AFMAG, and VLF.. Principles of Time Domain EM: INPUT method. EM Profiling
    and sounding, Interpretation of EM anomalies. Principle of EM scale modeling.
    Magnetotelluric methods: Origin and characteristics of MT fields,Instrumentation, Transverse Electric and Transverse Magnetic Modes, Static Shift. Dimensionality and Directionality analysis. Field Layout and interpretation of MT data and its applications. Principles of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR).
  • A3. Seismic Prospecting:
    Basic principles of seismic methods, Various factors affecting seismic velocities in rocks, Reflection, refraction and Energy partitioning at an interface,Geometrical spreading, Reflection and refraction of wave phenomena in a layered and dipping media. Seismic absorption and anisotropy, Multi channel seismic (CDP) data acquisition (2D and 3D), sources of energy, Geophones,geometry of arrays, different spread geometry, Instrumentation, digital recording. Different types of multiples, Travel time curves, corrections,
    Interpretation of data, bright spot, low velocity layer, Data processing, static and dynamic (NMO and DMO) corrections, shot-receiver gather, foldage,multiplexing and demultiplexing. Dix’s equation, Velocities: Interval, Average and RMS, Seismic resolution and Fresnel Zone, Velocity analysis and Migration techniques, Seismic Interpretation, Time and Depth Section, Fundamentals of VSP method, High Resolution Seismic Surveys (HRSS).
  • A4. Borehole Geophysics:
    Objectives of well logging, concepts of borehole geophysics, borehole conditions, properties of reservoir rock formations, formation parameters and their  relationships-formation factor, porosity, permeability, formation water resistivity, water saturation, irreducible water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation, residual hydrocarbon saturation; Arhcie’s and Humble’s equations;principles, instrumentations, operational procedures and interpretations ofvarious geophysical logs: SP, resistivity and micro resistivity, gamma ray,neutron, sonic, temperature, caliper and directional logs. Production logging,overlay and cross-plots of well-log data, determination of formation lithology,porosity, permeability and oil-water saturation, sub-surface correlation and mapping, delineation of fractures; application of well-logging in hydrocarbon,groundwater, coal, metallic and non-metallic mineral exploration.

UPSC Syllabus PART-B:

  • B1. Classical Mechanics
    Inertial and non-inertial frames, Newton’s laws; Pseudo forces; Central forcemotion; Two-body collisions, Scattering in laboratory and centre-of-mass frames; Rigid body dynamics, Moment of inertia, Variational principle,Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and equations of motion; Poisson brackets and canonical transformations; Symmetry, Invariance and conservation laws, Cyclic coordinates; Periodic motion, Small oscillations and normal modes; Special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations, Relativistic kinematics and mass-energy equivalence.
  • B2. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
    Laws of thermodynamics and their significance; Thermodynamic potentials,Maxwell relations; Chemical potential, Phase equilibria; Phase space, Micro- and macro- states; Micro canonical, canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions; Free Energy and connection with thermodynamic quantities;First and second order phase transitions; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution,Quantum statistics, Ideal Fermi and Bose gases; Principle of detailed balance;Blackbody radiation and Planck’s distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation;Random walk and Brownian motion; Diffusion equation.
  • B3. Atomic and Molecular Physics and Characterization of materials
    Quantum states of an electron in an atom; Electron spin; Stern-Gerlach experiment;Spectrum of Hydrogen, Helium and alkali atoms; Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen; Hyperfine structure and isotopic shift;Width of spectral lines; LS and JJ coupling; Zeeman, Paschen Back and Starkeffects; Rotational, vibrational, electronic, and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules; Frank-Condon principle; Thermal and optical properties of materials,
    Study of microstructure using SEM, Study of crystal structure using TEM,Resonance methods: Spin and applied magnetic field, Larmor precession,relaxation times – spin-spin relaxation, Spin-lattice relaxation, Electron spin resonance, g factor, Nuclear Magnetic resonance, line width, Motional narrowing, Hyperfine splitting; Nuclear Gamma Resonance: Principles of Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Line width, Resonance absorption, Isomer Shift,
    Quadrupole splitting.
  • B4. Nuclear and Particle Physics
    Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity;Binding energy, Packing fraction, Semi-empirical mass formula; Liquid drop model; Fission and fusion, Nuclear reactor; Line of stability, Characteristics of the nuclear forces, Nucleon-nucleon potential; Charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces; Isospin; Deuteron problem; Evidence of shell structure, Single-particle shell model and, its validity and limitations;Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules;
    Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanisms, compound nuclei and direct reactions;Classification of fundamental forces; Elementary particles (quarks, baryons,mesons, leptons); Spin and parity assignments, strangeness; Gell MannNishijima formula; C, P and T invariance and applications of symmetry arguments to particle reactions, Parity non-conservation in weak interaction;Relativistic kinematics.

UPSC Syllabus Geophysics : Paper-III

  • A1. Radiometric and Airborne Geophysics:
    Principles of radioactivity, radioactivity decay processes, units, radioactivity of rocks and minerals, Instruments, Ionization chamber, G-M counter,Scintillation counter, Gamma ray spectrometer, Radiometric prospecting for mineral exploration (Direct/Indirect applications), beach placers, titanium,zirconium and rare-earths, radon studies in seismology and environmental applications. Airborne geophysical surveys (gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic
    and radiometric), planning of surveys, flight path recovery methods.Applications in geological mapping, identification of structural features and altered zones.
  • A2. Marine Geophysics:
    Salinity, temperature and density of sea water. Introduction to Sea-floor features: Physiography, divisions of sea floor, continental shelves, slopes, and abyssal plains, growth and decline of ocean basins, turbidity currents,occurrence of mineral deposits and hydrocarbons in offshore. Geophysical surveys and instrumentation: Gravity, Magnetic and electromagnetic surveys,Sonobuoy surveys, Instrumentation used in ship borne surveys, towing cable and fish, data collection and survey procedures, corrections and interpretation
    of data. Oceanic magnetic anomalies, Vine-Mathews hypothesis, geomagnetic time scale and dating sea floor, Oceanic heat flow, ocean ridges, basins,marginal basins, rift valleys. Seismic surveys, energy sources, Pinger, Boomer,Sparker, Air gun, Hydrophones and steamer cabling. Data reduction and interpretation. Ocean Bottom Seismic surveys. Bathymetry, echo sounding,bathymetric charts, sea bed mapping. Navigation and Position fixing methods.
  • A3. Geophysical Signal Processing:
    Time Series, Types of signals, sampling theorem, aliasing effect, Fourier series of periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its properties, Discrete Fourier transform and FFT, Hilbert Transform, Convolution and Deconvolution, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function, unit step function. Time domain windows, Z transform and properties, Inverse Z transform. Poles and zeroes. Principles of digital filters, types of filters: recursive, non recursive, time invariant, Chebyshev, Butterworth, moving average, amplitude and phase
    response of filters, low pass, band pass and high pass filters. Processing of Random signals. Improvement of signal to noise ratio, source and geophone arrays as spatial filters. Earth as low pass filter.
  • A4. Remote Sensing and Geohydrology:
    Fundamental concepts of remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation spectrum,Interaction of electromagnetic energy and its interactions in atmosphere and surface of the earth, elements of photographic systems, reflectance and emittance, false color composites, remote sensing platforms, flight planning,geosynchronous and sun synchronous orbits, sensors, resolution, parallax and vertical exaggeration, relief displacement, mosaic, aerial photo interpretation
    and geological application. Fundamentals of photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing, multi-spectral scanners, thermal scanners, microwave remote sensing,fundamental of image processing and interpretation for geological applications.Types of water bearing formations, porosity, permeability, storage coefficient,specific storage, specific retention, specific yield, Different types of aquifers,vertical distribution of ground water, General flow equation; steady and unsteady flow of ground water in unconfined and confined aquifers.

UPSC Syllabus Geophysics : Paper-III

  • UPSC Syllabus B1. Solid State Physics and Basic Electronics
    Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, Space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction,Scanning and transmission electron microscopes; Band theory of solids,conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids,Specific heat: Einstein’s and Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and ferro;Elements of superconductivity; Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and
    applications; Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.Semiconductor devices and circuits: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors;Devices and structures (p-n junctions, diodes, transistors, FET, JFET and MOSFET, homo and hetero junction transistors, thermistors), Device characteristics, Frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic devices(solar cells, photo detectors, LEDs) Operational amplifiers and their
  • UPSC Syllabus B2. Laser systems
    Spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation. Coherence, Light amplification and relation between Einstein A and B coefficients. Rate equations for three and four level systems. Lasers: Ruby, Nd-YAG, CO2, Dye, Excimer,Semiconductor. Laser cavity modes, Line shape function and full width at half maximum (FWHM) for natural broadening, collision broadening, Doppler broadening; Saturation behavior of broadened transitions, Longitudinal and transverse modes. Mode selection, ABCD matrices and cavity stability criteria
    for confocal resonators. Quality factor, Expression for intensity for modes oscillating at random and mode-locked in phase. Methods of Q-switching and mode locking. Optical fiber waveguides, Fiber characteristics.
  • UPSC Syllabus B3. Digital electronics, Radar systems, Satellite communications
    Digital techniques and applications: Boolean identities, de Morgan’s theorems,Logic gates and truth tables; Simple logic circuits: registers, counters,comparators and similar circuits). A/D and D/A converters. Microprocessor:basics and architecture; Microcontroller basics. Combination and sequential logic circuits, Functional diagram, Timing diagram of read and write cycle, Data transfer techniques: serial and parallel. Fundamentals of digital computers.
    Radar systems, Signal and data processing, Surveillance radar, Tracking radar,Radar antenna parameters. Fundamentals of satellite systems, Communication and Orbiting satellites, Satellite frequency bands, Satellite orbit and inclinations. Earth station technology.
  • UPSC Syllabus B4. Quantum Mechanics
    Wave-particle duality; Wave functions in coordinate and momentum representations; Commutators and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle;Schrodinger’s wave equation (time-dependent and time-independent);Eigenvalue problems: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, tunneling through a 1-D barrier; Motion in a central potential; Orbital angular momentum; Addition of angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Matrix representation; Dirac’s bra and ket notations; Time-independent perturbation theory and applications;Variational method; WKB approximation; Time dependent perturbation theoryand Fermi’s Golden Rule; Selection rules; Semi-classical theory of radiation;Elementary theory of scattering, Phase shifts, Partial waves, Born approximation; Identical particles, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Spin-statistics connection; Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein Gordon and Dirac equations

UPSC Syllabus Chemistry : Paper-I (Inorganic Chemistry):

  • UPSC Syllabus 1. Inorganic solids:
    Defects, non-stoichiometric compounds and solid solutions, atom and ion diffusion, solid electrolytes. Synthesis of materials, monoxides of 3d-metals,higher oxides, complex oxides (corundrum, ReO3, spinel, pervoskites),framework structures (phosphates, aluminophosphates, silicates, zeolites),nitrides and fluorides, chalcogenides, intercalation chemistry, semiconductors,molecular materials.
  • UPSC Syllabus 2. Chemistry of coordination compounds:
    Isomerism, reactivity and stability: Determination of configuration of cis- and trans- isomers by chemical methods. Labile and inert complexes, substitution reactions on square planar complexes, trans effect. Stability constants of coordination compounds and their importance in inorganic analysis.
    Structure and bonding: Elementary Crystal Field Theory: splitting of dn configurations in octahedral, square planar and tetrahedral fields, crystal field stabilization energy, pairing energy. Jahn-Teller distortion. Metal-ligand bonding, sigma and pi bonding in octahedral complexes and their effects on the oxidation states of transition metals. Orbital and spin magnetic moments, spin only moments and their correlation with effective magnetic moments, d-d transitions; LS coupling, spectroscopic ground states, selection rules for
    electronic spectral transitions; spectrochemical series of ligands, charge transfer spectra.
  • UPSC Syllabus 3. Acid base titrations:
    Titration curves for strong acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base and weak
    base-strong acid titrations, polyprotic acids, poly-equivalent bases, determining
    the equivalence point: theory of acid-base indicators, pH change range of
    indicator, selection of proper indicator. Principles used in estimation of mixtures
    of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 (by acidimetry).
  • UPSC Syllabus 4. Gravimetric Analysis:
    General principles: Solubility, solubility product and common ion effect, effect of temperature on the solubility; Salt hydrolysis, hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis.
    Stoichiometry, calculation of results from gravimetric data. Properties of precipitates. Nucleation and crystal growth, factors influencing completion of precipitation. Co-precipitation and post-precipitation, purification and washing of precipitates. Precipitation from homogeneous solution. A few common gravimetric estimations: chloride as silver chloride, sulphate as barium sulphate, aluminium as oxinate and nickel as dimethyl glyoximate.
  • UPSC Syllabus 5. Redox Titrations:
    Standard redox potentials, Nernst equation. Influence of complex formation,precipitation and change of pH on redox potentials, Normal Hydrogen Electrode(NHE). Feasibility of a redox titration, redox potential at the equivalence point,redox indicators. Redox potentials and their applications.
    Principles behind Iodometry, permanganometry, dichrometry, differenc between iodometry and iodimetry. Principles of estimation of iron, copper,manganese, chromium by redox titration.
  • UPSC Syllabus 6. Complexometric titrations:
    Complex formation reactions, stability of complexes, stepwise formation constants, chelating agents. EDTA: acidic properties, complexes with metal ions,equilibrium calculations involving EDTA, conditional formation constants,derivation of EDTA titration curves, effect of other complexing agents, factors affecting the shape of titration curves: indicators for EDTA titrations, titration methods employing EDTA: direct, back and displacement titrations, indirect
    determinations, titration of mixtures, selectivity, masking and demasking agents. Typical applications of EDTA titrations: hardness of water, magnesium and aluminium in antacids, magnesium, manganese and zinc in a mixture,titrations involving unidentate ligands: titration of chloride with Hg2+ and cyanide with Ag+.
  • UPSC Syllabus 7. Organometallic compounds:
    18-electron rule and its applications to carbonyls and nature of bonding involved therein. Simple examples of metal-metal bonded compounds and metal clusters. Wilkinson’s catalyst.
  • UPSC Syllabus 8. Nuclear chemistry:
    Radioactive decay- General characteristics, decay kinetics, parent-daughter decay growth relationships, determination of half-lives. Nuclear stability. Decay theories. Unit of radioactivity. Preparation of artificial radionuclides by bombardment, radiochemical separation techniques. Experimental techniques in the assay of radioisotopes, Geiger-Muller counters. Solid state detectors.
  • UPSC Syllabus 9. Chemistry of d- and f-block elements:
    d-block elements: General comparison of 3d, 4d and 5d elements in terms of electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, atomization energy,oxidation states, redox properties, coordination chemistry, spectral and magnetic properties.
    f-block elements:
    Electronic configuration, ionization enthalpies, oxidation states, variation in atomic and ionic (3+) radii, magnetic and spectral properties of lanthanides, separation of lanthanides (by ion-exchange method).

UPSC Syllabus Chemistry : Paper-II (Physical Chemistry):

  • UPSC Syllabus 1. Kinetic theory and the gaseous state:
    Real gases, Deviation of gases from ideal behaviour; compressibility factor; van der Waals equation of state and its characteristic features. Existence of critical state. Critical constants in terms of van der Waals constants. Law of corresponding states and significance of second virial coefficient. Boyle temperature.
  • UPSC Syllabus 2. Solids: Nature of solid state. Band theory of solids: Qualitative idea of band theory, conducting, semiconducting and insulating properties.
    Law of constancy of angles, concept of unit cell, different crystal systems,Bravais lattices, law of rational indices, Miller indices, symmetry elements in crystals. X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s law.
  • UPSC Syllabus 3. Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium:
    Chemical potential in terms of Gibbs energy and other thermodynamic state functions and its variation with temperature and pressure. Gibbs-Duhem equation; fugacity of gases and fugacity coefficient. Thermodynamic conditions for equilibrium, degree of advancement. vant Hoff’s reaction isotherm.Equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs energy change. Definitions of KP, KC and Kx; vant Hoff’s reaction isobar and isochore. Activity and activity coefficients
    of electrolytes / ions in solution. Debye-Hückel limiting law.
  • UPSC Syllabus  Syllabus 4. Chemical kinetics and catalysis:
    Second order reactions. Determination of order of reactions. Parallel and consecutive reactions. Temperature dependence of reaction rate, energy of activation. Collision Theory and Transition State Theory of reaction rates.Enthalpy of activation, entropy of activation, effect of dielectric constant and ionic strength on reaction rate, kinetic isotope effect. Physisorption and chemisorption, adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, BET equation, surface area determination;colloids, electrical double layer and colloid stability, electrokinetic phenomenon.Elementary ideas about soaps and detergents, micelles, emulsions.
  • UPSC Syllabus 5. Electrochemistry:
    Types of electrochemical cells, cell reactions, emf and Nernst equation, ᐃG, ᐃH and ᐃS of cell reactions. Cell diagrams and IUPAC conventions. Standard cells.Half-cells / electrodes, types of reversible electrodes. Standard electrode potential and principles of its determination. Concentration cells. Determination of ᐃGº, Kº, Ksp and pH.Basic principles of pH metric and potentiometric titrations, determination of equivalence point and pKa values.
  • UPSC Syllabus 6. Quantum chemistry:
    Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Uncertainty relation, Expectation value.Hermitian operators. Schrödinger time-independent equation: nature of the equation, acceptability conditions imposed on the wave functions and probability interpretation of wave function. Schrödinger equation for particle in a one-dimensional box and its solution. Comparison with free particle
    eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Particle in a 3-D box and concept of degeneracy.
  • UPSC Syllabus 7. Basic principles and applications of spectroscopy:
    Electromagnetic radiation, interaction with atoms and molecules and quantization of different forms of energies. Units of frequency, wavelength and wave number. Condition of resonance and energy of absorption for various types of spectra; origin of atomic spectra, spectrum of hydrogen atom.
    Rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Rigid rotor model, selection rules, spectrum, characteristic features of spectral lines. Determination of bond length, effect of isotopic substitution.
    Vibrational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Simple Harmonic Oscillator model, selection rules and vibration spectra. Molecular vibrations, factors influencing vibrational frequencies. Overtones, anharmonicity, normal mode analysis of polyatomic molecules.
    Raman Effect: Characteristic features and conditions of Raman activity with suitable illustrations. Rotational and vibrational Raman spectra.
  • UPSC Syllabus 8. Photochemistry:
    Franck-Condon principle and vibrational structure of electronic spectra. Bond dissociation and principle of determination of dissociation energy. Decay of excited states by radiative and non-radiative paths. Fluorescence and phosphorescence, Jablonski diagram. Laws of photochemistry: Grotthus-Draper law, Stark-Einstein law of photochemical equivalence; quantum yield and its measurement for a photochemical process, actinometry. Photostationary state.Photosensitized reactions. Kinetics of HI decomposition, H2-Br2 reaction,dimerisation of anthracene.

UPSC Syllabus Chemistry : Paper-III (Analytical and Organic)
PART-A (Analytical Chemistry):

  • UPSC Syllabus A1. Errors in quantitative analysis:
    Accuracy and precision, sensitivity, specific standard deviation in analysis,classification of errors and their minimization, significant figures, criteria for rejection of data, Q-test, t-test, and F-test, control chart, sampling methods,sampling errors, standard reference materials, statistical data treatment.
  • UPSC Syllabus A2. Separation Methods:
    Chromatographic analysis: Basic principles of chromatography (partition,adsorption and ion exchange), column chromatography, plate concept, plate height (HETP), normal phase and reversed phase concept, thin layer chromatography, frontal analysis, principles of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC), and Ionexchange chromatography.
    Solvent extraction: Classification, principle and efficiency of the technique,mechanism of extraction, extraction by solvation and chelation, qualitative and quantitative aspects of solvent extraction, extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions.
  • UPSC Syllabus A3. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:
    Lambert-Beer’s Law and its limitations.
    UV-Visible Spectroscopy: Basic principles of UV-Vis spectrophotometer,Instrumentation UPSC Syllabus consisting of source, monochromator, grating and detector,spectrophotometric determinations (estimation of metal ions from aqueous solutions, determination of composition of metal complexes using Job’s method of continuous variation and mole ratio method).
    Infra-red Spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator and detector) for single and double beam instruments,sampling techniques.
    Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator, detector, choice of flame and burner design), techniques of atomization and sample introduction, method of background correction, sources of chemical interferences and methods of removal, techniques for the quantitative estimation of trace level metal ions.Basic principles and theory of AAS. Three different modes of AAS – Flame-AAS,VG-AAS, and GF-AAS. Single beam and double beam AAS. Function of Hollow
    Cathode Lamp (HCL) and Electrode Discharge Lamp (EDL). Different types of detectors used in AAS. Qualitative and quantitative analysis.
  • UPSC Syllabus A4. Thermal methods of analysis:
    Theory of thermogravimetry (TG), basic principle of instrumentation, techniques for quantitative analysis of Ca and Mg compounds.Introduction, theory of X-ray generation, X ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods, instrumentation and applications. Qualitative and quantitative measurements. Powder diffraction method.
  • UPSC Syllabus A6. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy:
    Theory and principles, plasma generation, utility of peristaltic pump, sampler–skimmer systems, ion lens, quadrupole mass analyzer, dynode / solid state detector, different types of interferences- spectroscopic and non-spectroscopic interferences, isobaric and molecular interferences, applications.
  • UPSC Syllabus A7. Analysis of geological materials:
    Analysis of minerals and ores- estimation of (i) CaCO3, MgCO3 in dolomite (ii) Fe2O3, Al2O3, and TiO2 in bauxite (iii) MnO and MnO2 in pyrolusite. Analysis of metals and alloys: (i) Cu and Zn in brass (ii) Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al and Ni in bronze (iii) Cr, Mn, Ni, and P in steel (iv) Pb, Sb, Sn in ‘type metal’.
    Introduction to petroleum: constituents and petroleum fractionation. Analysis of petroleum products: specific gravity, viscosity, Doctor test, aniline point, colour determination, cloud point, pour point. Determination of water, neutralization value (acid and base numbers), ash content, Determination of lead in petroleum.
    Types of coal and coke, composition, preparation of sample for proximate and ultimate analysis, calorific value by bomb calorimetry.

UPSC Syllabus PART B (Organic chemistry):

  • UPSC Syllabus B1. Unstable, uncharged intermediates:
    Structure and reactivity of carbenes and nitrenes and their rearrangements (Reimer-Tiemann, Hoffman, Curtius, Lossen, and Schimdt,).
  • UPSC Syllabus B2. Addition reactions:
    Addition to C-C multiple bonds: Mechanism of addition involving electrophiles,nucleophiles and free radicals (polymerization reactions of alkenes and substituted alkenes), Ziegler-Natta catalyst for polymerization, polyurethane,and conducting polymers; addition to conjugated systems (Diels-Alder reaction),orientation and reactivity (on simple cis- and trans- alkenes). Addition to carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds: Addition to C=O double bond, structure and reactivity, hydration, addition of ROH, RSH, CN-,bisulphite, amine derivatives, hydride ions.
  • UPSC Syllabus B3: Reactions at the carbonyl group:
    Cannizzaro, Aldol, Perkin, Claisen ester, benzoin, benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement, Mannich, Dieckmann, Michael, Strobe, Darzen, Wittig, Doebner,Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reactions.
  • UPSC Syllabus B4. Oxidation and Reduction:
    Reduction of C=C, Meerwein-Pondorf reaction, Wolff-Kishner and Birch reduction.
    Oxidation of C=C, hydration, hydroxylation, hydroboration, ozonolysis,epoxidation, Sharpless epoxidation.
  • UPSC Syllabus B5. Electrocyclic Reactions:
    Molecular orbital symmetry, frontier orbitals of ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3,5-hexatriene, allyl system, FMO approach, pericyclic reactions, WoodwardHoffman correlation diagram method and perturbation molecular orbital (PMO)approach for the explanation of pericyclic reactions under thermal and photochemical conditions. Simple cases of Norrish type-I and type-II reactions.Conrotatory and disrotatory motions of (4n) and (4n+2) polyenes with emphasis
    on [2+2] and [4+2] cycloadditions, sigmatropic rearrangements- shift of H and carbon moieties, Claisen, Cope, Sommerlet-Hauser rearrangement.
  • UPSC Syllabus B6. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:
    Infrared spectroscopy: Characteristic frequencies of organic molecules and interpretation of spectra. Modes of molecular vibrations, characteristic stretching frequencies of O-H, N-H, C-H, C-D, C=C, C=N, C=O functions; factors affecting stretching frequencies.
    Ultraviolet spectroscopy: Chromophores, auxochromes. Electronic transitions(σ−σ*, n-σ*, π-π* and n-π*), relative positions of λmax considering conjugative effect, steric effect, solvent effect, red shift (bathochromic shift), blue shift(hypsochromic shift), hyperchromic effect, hypochromic effect (typical examples).Woodward rules. Applications of UV spectroscopy to conjugated dienes, trienes,unsaturated carbonyl compounds and aromatic compounds.
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry: (Proton and Carbon-13 NMR)Nuclear spin, NMR active nuclei, principle of proton magnetic resonance,equivalent and non-equivalent protons. Measurement of spectra, the chemical shift, shielding / deshielding of protons, upfield and downfield shifts, intensity of NMR signals and integration factors affecting the chemical shifts: spin-spin coupling to 13C I H-I H first order coupling: some simple I H-I H splitting patterns:the magnitude of I H-I H coupling constants, diamagnetic anisotropy.
    Mass spectrometry: Basic Principles, the mass spectrometer, isotope
    abundances; the molecular ion, metastable ions. McLafferty rearrangement

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Download UPSC IES/ ISS Syllabus 2022 pdf

Union Public Service Commission has published syllabus for the post of IES/ ISS .

UPSC IES/ ISS Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union Public Service Commission
Post Name Indian Economic Services (IES) / Indian Statistical Services

UPSC IES/ ISS Selection Procedure 2022

  • Written Exam
  • Viva Voce

UPSC IES/ ISS Exam Pattern 2022

UPSC IES Exam Pattern 2022
Subject Marks Duration
General English 100  3 Hours
General Studies 100  3 Hours
General Economics-I 200 3 Hours
General Economics-II 200 3 Hours
General Economics-III 200 3 Hours
Indian Economics 200 3 Hours
Total 1000
UPSC Indian Statistical Service (ISS) Exam Pattern 2022
Subject Marks Duration
General English 100  3 Hours
General Studies 100  3 Hours
 Statistics-I (Objective) 200 2 Hours
 Statistics-II (Objective) 200 2 Hours
 Statistics-III (Descriptive) 200 3 Hours
 Statistics-IV (Descriptive) 200 3 Hours
Total 1000

UPSC IES Written Examination Syllabus 2022

UPSC Syllabus General Economics I

  • Theory of Consumer’s Demand.
  • Theory of Production.
  • Welfare Economics.
  • Theory of Value.
  • Theory of Distribution.
  • Quantitative Methods in Economics.

UPSC Syllabus General Economics II

  • Economic Thought.
  • The Concept of National Income and Social Accounting.
  • Theory of Employment, Money & Finance.
  • Financial and Capital Market.
  • Economic growth and development.
  • International Economics.
  • Balance of Payments.
  • Global Institutions.

UPSC Syllabus General Economics III

  • Public Finance.
  • Environmental Economics.
  • Industrial Economics.
  • State, market, and planning.

UPSC Syllabus Indian Economics

  • History of development & Planning.
  • Federal Finance.
  • Budgeting.
  • Poverty, unemployment, and Human Development.
  • Agriculture.
  • The strategy of Industrial development.
  • Labour.
  • Foreign Trade
  • Money and Banking.
  • Inflation.

UPSC ISS Skill Test Syllabus 2022

UPSC Syllabus General Studies

  • Current Events -National & International.
  • Indian Geography.
  • Polity & Governance.
  • Indian History.
  • Indian Polity.
  • Environmental Studies.
  • Indian Constitution.
  • Science & Technology etc.

UPSC Syllabus General English

  • Passages.
  • Precise Writing.
  • Essays.
  • Comprehension.
  • Antonyms.
  • Synonyms.
  • Letter Writing etc.

UPSC Syllabus Statistics-I

  • Probability.
  • Statistical Methods.
  • Numerical Analysis.
  • Computer Application.
  • Data Processing etc.

UPSC Syllabus Syllabus of Statistics-II

  • Linear Models.
  • Statistical Inference.
  • Hypothesis Testing.
  • Official Statistics.
  • Sector Wise Statistics.
  • Population Census.
  • Socio-Economic Indicators etc.

UPSC Syllabus Statistics-III

  • Sampling Techniques.
  • Estimation of Population.
  • Econometrics.
  • Applied Statistics.
  • Time Series Analysis.
  • Fourier Transform etc.

UPSC Syllabus Statistics-IV

  • Operations Research and Reliability.
  • Branch and Bound Method.
  • PERT and CPM.
  • Exponential Distributions.
  • Demography and Vital Statistics.
  • Survival Analysis and Clinical Trial.
  • Data Management.
  • Quality Control.
  • Multivariate Analysis.
  • Design and Analysis of Experiments.
  • Computing with C and R etc.

The Viva Voce Examination for both IES & ISS will consist of 200 Marks

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Download UPSC IFS Syllabus 2022 pdf

Union Public Service Commission has published syllabus for the post of IFS .

UPSC IFS Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union Public Service Commission
Post Name Indian Forest Service

UPSC IFS Selection Procedure 2022

  • Prelims Examination
  • Mains Examination
  • Interview

UPSC IFS Exam Pattern 2022

UPSC IFS Prelims Examination Pattern
Subject Marks
 Paper-I General Knowledge  200
 Paper-II General Studies  200
UPSC IFS Mains Examination Pattern
Subject Marks
Paper I – General English 300
Paper-II General Knowledge 300
Paper III, IV, V & VI – Any two subjects to be selected from the list of optional subjects set out below. Each subject will have two papers. 200
(For Each Paper)
  • Questions will be set in both English and Hindi.
  • The IFS Forestry Exam questions will be of Multiple Choice (Objective Type).
  • Paper-II of Civil Services Forestry (Prelims Examination) is the qualifying paper.
  • The Fixed Minimum Qualifying marks are at 33%.
  • The Prelims Examination will be with a Total of 400 marks (Paper I & II).
  • The Time duration each of Two Hours (Paper I, Paper-II).

UPSC IFS Prelims Examination Syllabus 2022

UPSC Syllabus Paper- I: General Knowledge

  • Current Event of National and International importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography.
  • Indian polity and  Governance.
  • Economic and Social Development.
  • General Science.
  • General Issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change.

UPSC Syllabus Paper – II: General Studies

  • Comprehension.
  • Interpersonal Skills including Communication Skills.
  • Logical Reasoning and Analytical Ability.
  • Decision Making and Problem Solving.
  • General Mental Ability.
  • Basic Numeracy, Data Interpretation.

UPSC Syllabus General English Syllabus

  • The English paper would consist of an essay and passages to write the summary
  • The standard level of papers in General English is for a Science or Engineering graduate of an Indian University.
  • Other questions are to test the general understanding of English and everyday use of words.

UPSC IFS Mains Optional Subjects

  • Agriculture.
  • Agricultural Engineering.
  • Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science.
  • Botany.
  • Chemistry.
  • Chemical Engineering.
  • Civil Engineering.
  • Forestry.
  • Geology.
  • Mathematics.
  • Mechanical Engineering.
  • Physics.
  • Statistics.
  • Zoology.

UPSC IFS Mains Examination Syllabus 2022

UPSC Syllabus General English

  • Candidates will be required to write an essay in English.
  • Other questions will be designed to test their understanding of the workmanlike use of words.
  • Passages will usually be set for summary or precise.

UPSC Syllabus General Knowledge

  • General Knowledge including knowledge of current events and of such matters of everyday observation and experience in their scientific aspects as may be expected of an educated person who has not made a special study of any scientific subject.
  • The paper will also include questions on Indian Polity including the political system and the Constitution of India, History of India and Geography of nature which the candidate should be able to answer without special study.

UPSC Syllabus Optional Subjects

The Union PSC Indian Forest Service Exam Optional Subjects consists of 14 Subjects they are as follows:

  • Agriculture:
    • It consists of 2 papers Paper 1 & Paper 2.
    • The detailed information regarding Paper 1 & Paper 2 is enclosed in the below pdf.
  • Agricultural Engineering:
    • It consists of two papers. In that Paper, I include two sections A & B. Paper II also consists of two sections, i.e., A & B.
    • The Detailed Information regarding Paper 1 & Paper 2 is enclosed in below pdf.
  • Paper 1 Section A consists of:
    • Soil and Water Conservation
    • Aerial Photography and Remote Sensing.
  • Paper 1 Section B Consists of:
    • Irrigation and Drainage
    • Agricultural Structures.
  • Paper 2 Section A Consists of:
    • Farm Power and Machinery
    • Agro-energy.
  • Paper 2 Section B Consists of:
    • Agricultural Process Engineering
    • Instrumentation and computer applications in Agricultural Engineering.

3. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science:

UPSC Syllabus Paper I Topics

  • Animal Nutrition
    • Trends in protein nutrition
    • Minerals in animal diet
    • Vitamins, Hormones and Growth Stimulating, substances
    • Advances in Ruminant Nutrition-Dairy Cattle
    • The Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-Poultry
    • Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition
    • The Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition
  • Animal Physiology
    • Growth and Animal Production
    • Milk Production and Reproduction and Digestion
    • Environmental Physiology
    • Semen quality
  • Livestock Production and Management
    • Commercial Dairy Farming
    • Commercial meat, egg and wool production
    • Feeding and management of animals.
  • Genetics and Animal Breeding
    • Population Genetics Applied to Animal Breeding
    • Breeding Systems.

UPSC Syllabus Paper-II Topics

  • Health and Hygiene
    • Histology and Histological Techniques
    • Embryology
    • Bovine Anatomy-Regional Anatomy
    • Anatomy of Fowl
    • Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion, Endocrine glands in health and disease
    • Blood constituents
    • Circulation
    • Respiration
    • Excretion
    • Endocrine glands
    • General knowledge of pharmacology and therapeutics of drugs
    • Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air, and habitation.
  • Animal Diseases
    • Veterinary Public Health
    • Zoonoses
    • Milk and Milk Products Technology
    • Epidemiology
    • Milk Technology
    • Veterinary Jurisprudence
    • Milk Products Technology
  • Meat Hygiene and Technology
    • Byproducts
    • Meat Hygiene
    • Poultry Products Technology
    • Meat Technology
    • Rabbit/Fur Animal farming
    • Extension.

UPSC Indian Forest Service Botany Syllabus

UPSC Syllabus Paper I
  • Microbiology and Plant Pathology
  • Cryptogams
  • Phanerogams: Gymnosperms
  • Angiosperms
  • Plant Utility and Exploitation
  • Morphogenesis.
UPSC Syllabus Paper-II
  • Cell Biology
  • Genetics, Molecular Biology, and Evolution
  • Plant Breeding, Biotechnology, and Biostatistics
  • Physiology and Biochemistry
  • Ecology and Plant Geography.

UPSC Syllabus Chemistry

UPSC Syllabus Paper-I
  • Atomic structure
  • Chemical bonding
  • Solid State
  • The gaseous state
  • Thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics
  • Phase equilibria and solutions
  • Electrochemistry
  • Chemical kinetics
  • Photochemistry
  • Surface phenomena and catalysis
  • Bio-inorganic chemistry
  • Coordination chemistry
  • General chemistry of ‘f’ block elements
  • Non-Aqueous Solvents.
UPSC Syllabus Paper-II
    • Delocalized covalent bonding
    • Reaction mechanisms
    • Reactive Intermediates
    • Substitution reactions
    • Elimination reactions
    • Addition reactions
    • Rearrangements
    • Pericyclic reactions
    • Chemistry and mechanism of reactions
  • Polymeric Systems
    • Physical chemistry of polymers
    • Preparation and properties of polymers
    • Biopolymers
  • Synthetic uses of reagents
  • Photochemistry
  • Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation
    • Rotational spectra
    • Vibrational spectra
    • Electronic spectra
    • Nuclear magnetic resonance
    • Mass spectra
    • Electron spin resonance.

UPSC Syllabus Chemical Engineering

UPSC Syllabus Section A
  • Fluid and Particle Dynamics
  • Mass Transfer
  • Heat Transfer
UPSC Syllabus Section B
  • Noval Separation Processes
  • Process Equipment Design
  • Process Dynamics and Control.

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UPSC NDA & NA Syllabus 2022 Published

Union public service commission has published syllabus for the post of NDA & NA.

UPSC NDA & NA Syllabus Details 2022

Recruitment Board Union public service commission
Post Name NDA & NA

UPSC NDA & NA Selection Procedure 2022

  • Written Examination
  • Interview

UPSC NDA & NA Exam Pattern 2022

UPSC NDA & NA Written Examination Pattern
Paper Subject Marks Duration
PAPER-I MATHEMATICS 300 2 Hours & 30 Minutes
PAPER-II GENERAL ABILITY TEST 600 2 Hours & 30 Minutes
  • The papers in all the subjects will consist of objective type questions.
  • Out of maximum marks assigned to part ‘B’ of this paper, questions on Sections ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’, ‘E’ and ‘F’ will carry approximately 25%, 15%, 10%, 20%, 20% and 10% weight ages respectively.
  • The question papers (test booklets) of mathematics and Part “B” of General Ability Test will be set bilingually in Hindi as well as English.
  • Candidates should note that there will be Negative Marking of One third marks for wrong answers marked by a candidate in the Objective Type Question Papers.
UPSC NDA & NA Interview Pattern
Subject Marks
  SSB Test   900
  • Candidates who select in the written examination are called for Interview which is conducted by SSB.

UPSC NDA & NA Written Examination Syllabus 2022

UPSC Syllabus Written Examination PAPER-I MATHEMATICS

  • UPSC Syllabus ALGEBRA:Concept of set, operations on sets, Venn diagrams. De Morgan laws, Cartesian product, relation,equivalence relation.Representation of real numbers on a line. Complex numbers – basic properties, modulus,argument, cube roots of unity. Binary system of numbers. Conversion of a number in decimal system to binary system and vice-versa. Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic progressions.Quadratic equations with real coefficients. Solution of liner in equations of two variables by graphs.Permutation and Combination. Binomial theorem and its applications. Logarithms and their applications.
  • UPSC Syllabus MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS :Types of matrices, operations on matrices. Determinant of a matrix, basic properties of determinants. Ad joint and inverse of a square matrix, Applications-Solution of a system of linear equations in two or three unknowns by Cramer’s rule and by Matrix Method.
  • UPSC Syllabus TRIGONOMETRY : Angles and their measures in degrees and in radians. Trigonometrical ratios. Trigonometric identities Sum and difference formulae. Multiple and Sub-multiple angles. Inverse trigonometric functions. Applications-Height and distance, properties of triangles
  • UPSC Syllabus ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY OF TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS :Rectangular  Cartesian Coordinate system. Distance formula. Equation of a line in various forms. Angle between two lines. Distance of a point from a line. Equation of a circle in standard and in general form. Standard forms of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Eccentricity and axis of a conic. Point in a three dimensional space, distance between two points. Direction Cosines and direction ratios. Equation of a plane and a line in various forms. Angle between two lines and angle between two planes. Equation of a sphere.
  • UPSC Syllabus DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS :Concept of a real valued function-domain, range and graph of a function. Composite functions, one to one, onto and inverse functions. Notion of limit, Standard limits – examples. Continuity of functions – examples, algebraic operations on continuous functions. Derivative of function at a point, geometrical and physical interpretation of a derivative-applications. Derivatives of sum, product and quotient of functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, derivative of a composite function. Second order derivatives. Increasing and decreasing functions.Application of derivatives in problems of maxima and minima
  • UPSC Syllabus INTEGRAL CALCULUS AND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS:Integration as inverse of differentiation, integration by substitution and by parts, standard integrals involving algebraic expressions, trigonometric, exponential and hyperbolic functions. Evaluation of definite integrals – determination of areas of plane regions bounded by curves –
    applications. Definition of order and degree of a differential equation, formation of a differential equation by examples. General and particular solution of a differential equations, solution of first order and first degree differential equations of various types – examples. Application in problems of growth and decay.
  • UPSC Syllabus VECTOR ALGEBRA:Vectors in two and three dimensions, magnitude and direction of a vector. Unit and null vectors, addition of vectors, scalar multiplication of a vector, scalar product or dot product of two vectors. Vector product or cross product of two vectors. Applications – work done by a force and movement of a force and in geometrical problems.
    Statistics:Classification of data, Frequency distribution, cumulative frequency distribution – examples Graphical representation – Histogram, Pie Chart, Frequency Polygon – examples. Measures of Central tendency – mean, median and mode. Variance and standard deviation – determination and comparison. Correlation and regression.
    Probability :Random experiment, outcomes and associated sample spaces, events, mutually exclusive and exhaustive events, impossible and certain events. Union and intersection of events. Complementary, elementary and composite events. Definition of probability – Classical and Statistical – examples. Elementary theorems on probability – simple problems. Conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem – simple problems. Random variable as function on a sample space. Binomial distribution, examples of random experiments giving rise to Binomial distribution.


  • UPSC Syllabus Part ‘A’ – ENGLISH (Maximum Marks 200)
    The question paper in English will be designed to test the candidate’s understanding of English and workman like use of words. The syllabus covers various aspects like: Grammar and usage, vocabulary, comprehension and cohesion in extended text to test the candidate’s proficiency in English
  • UPSC Syllabus Part ‘B’ – GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (Maximum Marks – 200)
    The question paper on General Knowledge will broadly cover the subjects : Physics, Chemistry,General Science, Social Studies, Geography and Current Events.
    The syllabus given below is designed to indicate the scope of these subjects included in this
    paper. The topics mentioned are not to be regarded as exhaustive and questions on topics of similar nature not specifically mentioned in the syllabus may also be asked. Candidate’s answers are expected to show their knowledge and intelligent understanding of the subject
  • UPSC Syllabus Section ‘A’ (Physics)
    Physical Properties and State of Matter, Mass, Weight, Volume, Density and Specific Gravity,
    Principle of Archimedes, Pressure Barometer.
    Motion of objects, Velocity and Acceleration, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Force and Momentum, Parallelogram of Forces, Stability and Equilibrium of bodies, Gravitation, elementary ideas of work,Power and Energy. Effects of Heat, Measurement of Temperature and Heat, Change of State and Latent Heat, Modes of transference of Heat. Sound Waves and their properties, Simple musical instruments. Rectilinear propagation of Light, Reflection and refraction. Spherical mirrors and Lenses, Human Eye. Natural and Artificial Magnets, Properties of a Magnet, Earth as Magnet.
    Static and Current Electricity, conductors and Non-conductors, Ohm’s Law, Simple Electrical
    Circuits, Heating, Lighting and Magnetic effects of Current, Measurement of Electrical Power,
    Primary and Secondary Cells, Use of X-Rays. General Principles in the working of the following :
    Simple Pendulum, Simple Pulleys, Siphon, Levers, Balloon, Pumps, Hydrometer, Pressure Cooker, Thermos Flask, Gramophone, Telegraphs, Telephone, Periscope, Telescope, Microscope,Mariner’s Compass; Lightening Conductors, Safety Fuses.
  • UPSC Syllabus Section ‘B’ (Chemistry)
    Physical and Chemical changes. Elements, Mixtures and Compounds, Symbols, Formulae and simple Chemical Equations, Law of Chemical Combination (Excluding Problems). Properties of Air and Water.
    Preparation and Properties of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Carbon dioxide, Oxidation and Reduction. Acids, bases and salts. Carbon – different forms. Fertilizers – Natural and Artificial.Material used in the preparation of substances like Soap, Glass, Ink, Paper, Cement, Paints, Safety Matches and Gun-Powder. Elementary ideas about the structure of Atom, Atomic Equivalent and Molecular Weights, Valency.
  • UPSC Syllabus Section ‘C’ (General Science)
    Difference between the living and non-living. Basis of Life – Cells, Protoplasm’s and Tissues.
    Growth and Reproduction in Plants and Animals.Elementary knowledge of Human Body and its important organs. Common Epidemics, their causes and prevention.
    Food – Source of Energy for man. Constituents of food, Balanced Diet. The Solar System – Meteors and Comets, Eclipses. Achievements of Eminent Scientists.
  • UPSC Syllabus Section ‘D’ (History, Freedom Movement etc).
    A broad survey of Indian History, with emphasis on Culture and Civilization.
    Freedom Movement in India. Elementary study of Indian Constitution and Administration.
    Elementary knowledge of Five Year Plans of India. Panchayati Raj, Co-operatives and Community Development. Bhoodan, Sarvodaya, National Integration and Welfare State, Basic Teachings of Mahatma Gandhi.
    Forces Shaping the modern world; Renaissance, Exploration and Discovery; War of American Independence. French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and Russian Revolution. Impact of Science and Technology on Society. Concept of one World, United Nations, Panchsheel,Democracy, Socialism and Communism. Role of India in the present world.
  • UPSC Syllabus Section ‘E’ (Geography)
    The Earth, its shape and size. Latitudes and Longitudes, Concept of time. International Date
    Line. Movements of Earth and their effects. Origin of Earth. Rocks and their classification;
    Weathering – Mechanical and Chemical, Earthquakes and Volcanoes. Ocean Currents and Tides Atmosphere and its composition; Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure, Planetary Winds,Cyclones and Anti-cyclones; Humidity; Condensation and Precipitation; Types of Climate, Major Natural regions of the world. Regional Geography of India – Climate, Natural Vegetation. Mineral and Power resources; location and distribution of agricultural and Industrial activities. Important Sea ports and main sea, land and air routes of India. Main items of Imports and Exports of India.
  • UPSC Syllabus Section ‘F’ (Current Events)
    Knowledge of Important events that have happened in India in the recent years. Current
    important world events. Prominent personalities – both Indian and International including those connected with cultural activities and sports.

NOTE : Out of maximum marks assigned to part ‘B’ of this paper, questions on Sections ‘A’, ‘B’. ‘C’,
‘D’, ‘E’ and ‘F’ will carry approximately 25%, 15%, 10%, 20%, 20% and 10% weightages

UPSC NDA & NA Interview Syllabus 2022

UPSC Syllabus SSB Test / Interview
The SSB procedure consists of two stage selection process – Stage I and Stage II. Only those
candidates who clear the stage I are permitted to appear for Stage II. The details are :

  • Stage I comprises of Officer Intelligence Rating (OIR) tests are Picture Perception Description Test (PP&DT). The candidates will be shortlisted based on combination of performance in QIR Test and PP and DT.
  • Stage II Comprises of Interview, Group Testing Officer Tasks, Psychology Tests and the Conference. These tests are conducted over 4 days.
    The personality of a candidate is assessed by three different assessors viz. the Interviewing Officer (IO), Group Testing Officer (GTO)and the Psychologist. There are no separate weightage for each test. The marks are allotted by assessors only after taking into consideration the performance of the candidate holistically in all the test. In addition, marks for Conference are also alloted based on the initial performance of the candidate in the three techniques and decision of the Board. All these have equal weightage.
    The various tests of IO, GTO and Psych are designed to bring out the presence/ absence of Officer Like Qualities and their train ability in a candidate. Accordingly candidates are Recommended or Not Recommended at the SSB.

Download UPSC NDA & NA Syllabus 2022

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How to download UPSC Syllabus 2022 for Various Posts

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